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Discrete mathematical structures Notes

# Discrete mathematical structures Notes

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Notes for an introductory course in discrete mathematical structures.
Notes for an introductory course in discrete mathematical structures.

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11/08/2013

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1 Logical Operators
p
(1)is
False
when Both p and q are
False
;
True
otherwise
p
(2)is
True
when Both p and q are
True
;
False
otherwise
p
(3)is
True
when
exactly one
is
True
;
False otherwise
p
(4)Can be read as ”p only if q”
is
False
when p is
True
and q is
False
;
True otherwise
True
when both p and q are
True
True
when p is
False
(q doesn’t matter)
is
False
when p is
True
and q is
False
if
¬
p
is
False
, then q must be
True
q unless
¬
p
and
p
have the same truth value
Assume
p
(5)
Converse
p
Contrapositive
¬
¬
p
Same truth value as
p
False
only when
¬
p is
False
and
¬
q is
TrueInverse
¬
p
¬
p
(6)
True
when p and q have
same truth value
1

True
when
p
is
True
and
p
is
True
;
False
otherwise
Tautology
is a proposition that is always
is a proposition that is always
False
2 Logical Equivalencies
Identity Laws
p
T
p p
F
p
Domination Laws
p
T
T
p
F
F
Idempotent
p
p
p p
p
p
Commutative
p
p p
p
Associative(
p
)
r
p
(
r
)(
p
)
r
p
(
r
)Distribution
p
(
r
)
(
p
)
(
p
r
)
p
(
r
)
(
p
)
(
p
r
)Absorption
p
(
p
)
p p
(
p
)
p
Negation (Complement)
p
¬
p
T
p
¬
p
F
2.1 Logical Equivalencies With Conditional Statements
p
≡ ¬
p
p
≡ ¬
¬
p
¬
p
p
p
¬
≡ ¬
p
¬
p
≡ ¬
p
p
≡ ¬
(
p
¬
)
¬
(
p
)
p
¬
(
p
)
(
p
r
)
p
(
r
)(
p
r
)
(
r
)
(
p
)
r
(
p
)
(
p
r
)
p
(
r
)(
p
r
)
(
r
)
(
p
)
r
2.2 Logical Equivalencies with Biconditionals
p
(
p
)
(
p
)
p
≡ ¬
p
¬
p
(
p
)
(
¬
p
¬
)
¬
(
p
)
(
p
¬
)2

2.3 De-Morgan’s Laws
¬
(
p
)
≡ ¬
p
¬
¬
(
p
)
≡ ¬
p
¬
3 Quantiﬁers
3.1 Universal Quantiﬁer
(7)
It is read as ”For all”. So
x
means ”For all x”
The statement
xP
(
x
) is the same as the
conjunction
(
x
1
)
(
x
2
)
···∧
(
x
n
).
Can
be distributed over a
conjunction
(
), but
can not
be distributedover a
disjunction
(
).
Meaning
x
(
(
x
)
Q
(
x
))
xP
(
x
)
xQ
(
x
))
3.2 Existential Quantiﬁer
(8)
It is read as ”There exists”. So
x
means ”There exists an x”
Similarly the statement
xP
(
x
) is the same as the
disjunction
(
x
1
)
(
x
2
)
∨···∨
(
x
n
)
Can
be distributed over a
disjunction
(
), but can
not
be distributedover a
conjunction
(
).
Meaning
x
(
(
x
)
Q
(
x
))
≡ ∃
xP
(
x
)
xQ
(
x
))Statement When is it True? When is it False
xP
(
x
) P(x) is True for all x There is an x for which P(x) is False
xP
(
x
) There is an x for which P(x) is True P(x) is False for every x
4 Other Quantiﬁers
4.1 Uniqueness Quantiﬁer
! (9)Denoted by
! or
1
.
!
xP
(
x
) states that ”There exists a unique
such that
P(x)
is true.”3