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Published by tj1989

Notes for an introductory course in discrete mathematical structures.

Notes for an introductory course in discrete mathematical structures.

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1 Logical Operators

p

∨

q

(1)is

False

when Both p and q are

False

;

True

otherwise

p

∧

q

(2)is

True

when Both p and q are

True

;

False

otherwise

p

⊕

q

(3)is

True

when

exactly one

is

True

;

False otherwise

p

→

q

(4)Can be read as ”p only if q”

•

is

False

when p is

True

and q is

False

;

True otherwise

•

True

when both p and q are

True

•

True

when p is

False

(q doesn’t matter)

•

is

False

when p is

True

and q is

False

•

if

¬

p

is

False

, then q must be

True

q unless

¬

p

and

p

→

q

have the same truth value

Assume

p

→

q

(5)

Converse

q

→

p

Contrapositive

¬

q

→ ¬

p

•

Same truth value as

p

→

q

•

False

only when

¬

p is

False

and

¬

q is

TrueInverse

¬

p

→ ¬

q p

↔

q

(6)

•

True

when p and q have

same truth value

1

•

True

when

p

→

q

is

True

and

q

→

p

is

True

;

False

otherwise

Tautology

is a proposition that is always

TrueContradiction

is a proposition that is always

False

2 Logical Equivalencies

Identity Laws

p

∧

T

≡

p p

∨

F

≡

p

Domination Laws

p

∨

T

≡

T

p

∧

F

≡

F

Idempotent

p

∧

p

≡

p p

∨

p

≡

p

Commutative

p

∨

q

≡

q

∨

p p

∧

q

≡

q

∧

p

Associative(

p

∨

q

)

∨

r

≡

p

∨

(

q

∨

r

)(

p

∧

q

)

∧

r

≡

p

∧

(

q

∧

r

)Distribution

p

∨

(

q

∧

r

)

≡

(

p

∨

q

)

∧

(

p

∨

r

)

p

∧

(

q

∨

r

)

≡

(

p

∧

q

)

∨

(

p

∧

r

)Absorption

p

∨

(

p

∧

q

)

≡

p p

∧

(

p

∨

q

)

≡

p

Negation (Complement)

p

∨¬

p

≡

T

p

∧¬

p

≡

F

2.1 Logical Equivalencies With Conditional Statements

p

→

q

≡ ¬

p

∨

q p

→

q

≡ ¬

q

→ ¬

p

¬

p

→

q

≡

p

∨

q p

→ ¬

q

≡ ¬

p

∨¬

q p

∨

q

≡ ¬

p

→

q p

∧

q

≡ ¬

(

p

→ ¬

q

)

¬

(

p

→

q

)

≡

p

∧¬

q

(

p

→

q

)

∧

(

p

→

r

)

≡

p

→

(

q

∧

r

)(

p

→

r

)

∧

(

q

→

r

)

≡

(

p

∨

q

)

→

r

(

p

→

q

)

∨

(

p

→

r

)

≡

p

→

(

q

∨

r

)(

p

→

r

)

∨

(

q

→

r

)

≡

(

p

∧

q

)

→

r

2.2 Logical Equivalencies with Biconditionals

p

↔

q

≡

(

p

→

q

)

∧

(

q

→

p

)

p

↔

q

≡ ¬

p

↔ ¬

q p

↔

q

≡

(

p

∧

q

)

∨

(

¬

p

∧¬

q

)

¬

(

p

↔

q

)

≡

(

p

↔ ¬

q

)2

2.3 De-Morgan’s Laws

¬

(

p

∧

q

)

≡ ¬

p

∨¬

q

¬

(

p

∨

q

)

≡ ¬

p

∧¬

q

3 Quantiﬁers

3.1 Universal Quantiﬁer

∀

(7)

•

It is read as ”For all”. So

∀

x

means ”For all x”

•

The statement

∀

xP

(

x

) is the same as the

conjunction

P

(

x

1

)

∧

P

(

x

2

)

∧···∧

P

(

x

n

).

•

Can

be distributed over a

conjunction

(

∧

), but

can not

be distributedover a

disjunction

(

∨

).

–

Meaning

∀

x

(

P

(

x

)

∧

Q

(

x

))

≡ ∀

xP

(

x

)

∧∀

xQ

(

x

))

3.2 Existential Quantiﬁer

∃

(8)

•

It is read as ”There exists”. So

∃

x

means ”There exists an x”

•

Similarly the statement

∃

xP

(

x

) is the same as the

disjunction

P

(

x

1

)

∨

P

(

x

2

)

∨···∨

P

(

x

n

)

•

Can

be distributed over a

disjunction

(

∨

), but can

not

be distributedover a

conjunction

(

∧

).

–

Meaning

∃

x

(

P

(

x

)

∨

Q

(

x

))

≡ ∃

xP

(

x

)

∨∃

xQ

(

x

))Statement When is it True? When is it False

∀

xP

(

x

) P(x) is True for all x There is an x for which P(x) is False

∃

xP

(

x

) There is an x for which P(x) is True P(x) is False for every x

4 Other Quantiﬁers

4.1 Uniqueness Quantiﬁer

∃

! (9)Denoted by

∃

! or

∃

1

.

∃

!

xP

(

x

) states that ”There exists a unique

x

such that

P(x)

is true.”3