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Periodic Table

Periodic Table

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Published by Pravin
Kota Bansal Pattern Chemistry Notes of periodic Table
Kota Bansal Pattern Chemistry Notes of periodic Table

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Published by: Pravin on Mar 29, 2009
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INORGANIC CHEMISTRY By--
P
.K.SINHA
Contact at pknoida1@gmail.com
THE PERIODIC TABLE
DOBEREINER
S TRIADS:
-
Dobereiner classified elements into groups of three, called triads. The properties ofthe middle element in a triad is the average of the properties of the first and the thirdelements. For example, (Li, Na, K) and (Cl, Br, I). However, only a limited number of suchtriads could be found.
NEWLAND
S LAW OF OCTAVES:
-
John A. R. Newlands in 1865-66 developed his law of octaves. He found that when theelements were arranged in order of their increasing atomic weights, any given elements wassimilar to the either element that followed it. For example, K, the sixteenth element inNewland's list and properties similar to Li, the second element in the list.
MENDELEVE
S PERIODIC TABLE
 
In these tables, the elements were
arranged in the order of their increasing atomic weights
.
Lother Meyer used the physical properties such as the atomic volume, melting point andboiling point
to arrive at his table of elements. Mendellev
s system was more elaborate. He used
a broader range of physical and chemical properties to classify the elements. In particular,Mendelleve relied on the similarities in the chemical formulae of the compounds formed by theelements. Mendelleve stated the Periodic Law.
The properties of the elements, as well as the formulae and properties of theircompounds depend in a periodic manner on the atomic weight of theelements
 There were a few positions in the table (e.g. Ar, K, and Te, I) where elementshaving the higher weight preceded the element with lower mass for properperiodicity in the properties
.
He therefore, ignored the order of atomic weights to grouptogether elements which had similar chemical properties.His proposal was even backed by the
predictions for the undiscovered elements
. He hadthe courage and foresight to leave gaps in the table for elements which were not known atthat time. He could predict the properties of those missing elements from a study of theproperties of other elements in the same group. For example,
germanium, gallium andscandium
sere not discovered at that time when Mendeleev proposed his periodic table. Henamed these elements as eka-sillicon, eka
 –
aluminum and eka-boron because he believedthat they would be similar to silicon, aluminum and boron respectively.
Note: 1
In true sense of words Mendelleve organized the elements according to a regularincrease or decrease in valence (the capacity of an element to combine with anotherelement). Properties were grouped together.
2.
Due to this systematic work and far
 –
reaching ideas, Mendelleve is usually given thecredit for the design of the periodic table as we know it today. The modern periodictable is essentially similar to that of Mendellev
s with a separate column added for 
noble gases which were not discovered until then
 
THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE 
The modern version of the periodic law is stated as :
The physical and chemical properties of the elements are the periodic functions oftheir atomic masses
.
LONG FORM OF THE PERIODIC TABLE
There are many forms of the periodic tale. The long form of the periodic table is the mostconvenient and the most widely used and is presented here. The horizontal rows are calledPERIODS. Elements having similar chemical and physical properties appear in vertical columnsand are known as GROUPS or FAMILIES. Altogether there are seven periods and 18 groups.
PERIODS
1
ST
Period
Contain only 2 elements namely
1
H,
2
He and is the
shortest period.IInd Period
Contains 8 elements namely
3
Li,
4
Be,
5
B,
6
C,
7
N,
8
O,
9
F and
10
Ne is known as the
short period.IIIrd Period
Contains 8 elements :
11
Na,
12
Mg,
13
Al,
14
Si, 15S,
16
S,
17
Cl, and
18
Ar. The IIIrdperiod is also known as
short period.
 
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY By--
P
.K.SINHA
Contact at pknoida1@gmail.com
IV Period
starts with potassium and contains 18 elements :
19
K,
20
Ca,
21
Sc,
22
Ti,
23
V,
24
Cr,
25
Mn,
26
Fe,
27
Co,
28
Ni,
29
Cu,
30
Zn,
31
Ga,
32
Ge,
33
As,
34
Se,
35
Br and
36
Kr and is knownas
long period.V Period
Starts with rubidium and contains 18 elements :
37
Rb,
38
Sr,
39
Y,
40
Zr,
41
Nb,
42
Mo,
43
Tc,
44
Ru,
45
Rh,
46
PD,
47
Ag,
48
CD
49
In,
50
Sn,
51
Sb,
52
Te,
53
I,
54
Xe.The fifth
VI Period
Consists of 32 elements, starting from cesium (
55
Sc) and ending with radon. It iscalled as longest period. This period includes the 4
shell that includes Lanthanides(
58
Ce,
..
71
Lu).
VII Period
Like the sixth period would have a theoretical maximum of 32 elements. This periodhowever is incomplete and at present contains 19 elements starting from
87
Fr(francium) to
92
U. All these elements are naturally occurring but rest are radioactivewith very short half lives. These also include a part of inner transition elements,
90
Th,
.
103
Lr.
GROUPS
The atom of the element in a single vertical column have the same or very similar electronicconfigurations in the highest occupied orbitals and are therefore said to belong to the sameGROUP or FAMILY of elements. According to the new IUPAC recommendations the groupsare numbered form 1 to 18. Bases on the electronic configuration, we can classify elements into four types.1. Noble Gases2. Representative Elements3. Transition Elements and4. Inner Transition Elements
1.
Noble Gases
The
noble gases are found at the end of each period in group 18. With the exception ofhelium, these elements have ns
2
np
6
electronic configuration in the outermost shell. Heliumhas 1s2 configuration. All the energy levels that are occupied by the electrons are completelyfilled and this stable arrangement of electrons cannot be easily altered. These elements havevery low chemical reactivity.
2.
Representative Elements (s and p block elements)
The elements of Group 1 (alkali metals), Group 2(alkaline earth metals) and Group 13
 –
17constitute the Representative Elements. For the representative elements the period in whichthe element is located equal the principal quantum number of the differentiating electron, i.e.,if an element is in nth period then the electronic configuration will be either ns
1-2
or np
1-5
.
Group 1
Consists of
1
H(1s
1
),
3
Li(2s
1
),
11
Na(3s
1
),
19
K(4s
1
),
37
Rb(5s
1
),
55
Cs(6s
1
),
87
Fr(7s
1
).Thecommon outermost electronic configuration is ns
-1
. Elements belonging to this groupare known as Alkali Metals.
 
Group 2
Contains
4
Be(2s
2
),
12
Mg(3s
2
),
20
Ca(4s
2
),
38
Sr(5s
2
),
56
Ba(6s
2
),
88
Ra(7s
2
). Theelements belonging to this group are known as Alkaline Earth Metals. The commonoutermost electronic configuration of the elements of this group is ns
2
.
 
Group 3
Starts with
5
B(2s
2
2p
1
). The general electronic configuration of the elements of thisgroup is ns
2
np
1
. This group is also known as the Boron Family
.
Group 4
Starts with
6
C(2s
2
2p
2
). The general electronic configuration is ns
2
np
2
. This group isalso referred to as the carbon family.
 
Group 5
Starts with
7
N(2S
2
2P
3
).the general outermost electronic configuration of the elementsof this family ns
2
np
3
. This group is also referred to as the Nitrogen Family.
 Group 6
Starts with
8
O(2S
2
2p
4
) and is known as Oxygen Family. The general outermostelectronic configuration of the elements of this family ns
2
np
4
. The elements of thisfamily are also known as Chalcogens
.
Group 7
Contains
9
F(2S
2
2p
5
),
17
Cl(3s
2
3p
5
),
35
Br(4s
2
4p
5
),
53
I(5s
2
5p
5
) and
85
At(6s
2
6p
5
) Theelements of this group are commonly known as Halogens.
 
Typical Elements
Elements of the third period are known as Typical elements, examples,
11
Na,
12
Mg,
13
Al,
14
Si,
15
P,
16
S and
17
Cl Properties of all elements present in a particular group e.g. of group 1resemble with the properties of
11
Na and not with
3
Li.
Bridge Elements
Elements of second period are known as Bridge Elements. Properties of the bridge elementsresemble with the properties of the diagonal elements of the third period. For example, Liresembles Mg; Be resemble Mg; Be resembles Al; B resembles Si etc.
Note:- Noble gases are also grouped with representative P
 –
block elements as theycome at the end of each period.
The chemical and physical properties of the representative elements is determined by the
 
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY By--
P
.K.SINHA
Contact at pknoida1@gmail.com
number of electrons in the outer most shell called the Valence Shell. The number of valenceelectrons for groups 1 and 2 is the same as the group number for group 13
 –
17, this numberis obtained by subtracting 10 from the group number.
3. Transition Elements (d- block elements)
These are the elements of Groups 3 to 12 in the center of the period table. The elements inwhich the last electron enters the d sub-shell of the penultimate energy level are called dblock elements. The outer most configuration of these elements is (n-1)d
1 - 10
ns
1 - 2
They aremetals. They form colored ions and exhibit variable valency. However, Zn, Cd and Hg whichtoo have (n
 –
1) d
1
 –
10
ns
2
configuration in their outermost shell do not form colored ions andare not regarded as transition elements.
4. The Inner Transition elements ( f
 –
Block Elements)
The rows of elements at the bottom of the periodic table are called the Lanthanide andactinide series. These elements in which the last electron enters the f sub-shell of the anti-penultimate (third to the outermost shell) shell are called f block elements Their outerelectronic configuration is (n-2)f1
 –
14 (n-1) d0-1 ns2. The differentiating electron is an f-electron. They are all metals. Within each series the properties of the elements are quitesimilar .
PERIODIC TRENDS IN PROPERTIES
1.
VALENCE:-
An important chemical property of the elements exhibiting periodic trends is their Valence. It isdefined as combining capacity of an element. It can also be defined it terms of valenceelectrons (electrons in the outermost shells).
The valency is equal to number of valenceelectrons (or equal to 8 minus the number of valence electrons.
 1. the valence of representative elements is usually equal to the number of electrons in theoutermost orbitals and /or equal to eight minus the number of outermost electrons.2. Transition elements do not exhibit any general trend. The reason for this that thoseelements have variable valencies due to availability of vacant d- subshells in them.3. Inner transition elements also do not exhibit any general trend in the valency.
2. ATOMIC AND IONIC RADII
It is impossible to define the size of atoms as we know that atoms have no shop boundariesdue to the delocalized picture of electron cloud. An estimate of he atomic size can be madeby knowing the distance between the atoms in the combined state. There are threeoperational concepts of atomic radius.a. If the bonding is covalent, the radius is called covalent radius.b. If the bonding is ionic, the radius is called ionic radius.c. If the two atoms are not bounded by a chemical bond (as in noble gases), the radiusis called Vander Walls radius.
a. Covalent Radius
:
It
is half of the distance between the nuclei of two
likeatoms bounded together by a single bond. For Example, the bond distance inhydrogen molecule (H
2
) is 74 pm and half of this distance is taken as the atomicradius of hydrogen. This radius is known as the covalent radius.
b Ionic Radius:
It is
the effective distance from the nucleus of an ion
up to whichit has its influence on its electron cloud.
 
c
 
van der Wall
s radius :
It
is one half of the distance between the nuclei of twoadjacent atoms belonging to two neighboring molecules of an element in thesolid state.
The covalent radius is always smaller than the van der Wall
s radius
because in the formation of chemical bond, the tow atoms have to come closer toeach other. This is why the inert gases (where covalent radius is generally notpossible) tend to have a larger size.1. The size of atoms increases as we go down a column of periodic table. This increaseis attributed to the increase in the number of shells around the nucleus.2. The size of the atoms decrease as we go across the period from left to right exceptgroup 18 (Noble Gases). This decreases in the size is attributed to the increases inthe nuclear charge and hence the attraction.3. A positive ion is always smaller in size than the corresponding neutral atom.4. A negative ion is always bigger in size than the corresponding neutral atom.5. The size of ions increases as we go down a group provided that we are comparingions of same charge.6. Atoms or ions with the same electronic configurations are called as iso-electronic. Ifwe consider a series of iso-electronic species (atoms or ions), the size decreaseswith the increasing atomic number. To illustrate the concept: consider the radius ofthe following iso-electronic species, all having 10 electrons.

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