INORGANIC CHEMISTRY By--
Contact at email@example.com
THE PERIODIC TABLE
Dobereiner classified elements into groups of three, called triads. The properties ofthe middle element in a triad is the average of the properties of the first and the thirdelements. For example, (Li, Na, K) and (Cl, Br, I). However, only a limited number of suchtriads could be found.
S LAW OF OCTAVES:
John A. R. Newlands in 1865-66 developed his law of octaves. He found that when theelements were arranged in order of their increasing atomic weights, any given elements wassimilar to the either element that followed it. For example, K, the sixteenth element inNewland's list and properties similar to Li, the second element in the list.
S PERIODIC TABLE
In these tables, the elements were
arranged in the order of their increasing atomic weights
Lother Meyer used the physical properties such as the atomic volume, melting point andboiling point
to arrive at his table of elements. Mendellev
s system was more elaborate. He used
a broader range of physical and chemical properties to classify the elements. In particular,Mendelleve relied on the similarities in the chemical formulae of the compounds formed by theelements. Mendelleve stated the Periodic Law.
The properties of the elements, as well as the formulae and properties of theircompounds depend in a periodic manner on the atomic weight of theelements
There were a few positions in the table (e.g. Ar, K, and Te, I) where elementshaving the higher weight preceded the element with lower mass for properperiodicity in the properties
He therefore, ignored the order of atomic weights to grouptogether elements which had similar chemical properties.His proposal was even backed by the
predictions for the undiscovered elements
. He hadthe courage and foresight to leave gaps in the table for elements which were not known atthat time. He could predict the properties of those missing elements from a study of theproperties of other elements in the same group. For example,
germanium, gallium andscandium
sere not discovered at that time when Mendeleev proposed his periodic table. Henamed these elements as eka-sillicon, eka
aluminum and eka-boron because he believedthat they would be similar to silicon, aluminum and boron respectively.
In true sense of words Mendelleve organized the elements according to a regularincrease or decrease in valence (the capacity of an element to combine with anotherelement). Properties were grouped together.
Due to this systematic work and far
reaching ideas, Mendelleve is usually given thecredit for the design of the periodic table as we know it today. The modern periodictable is essentially similar to that of Mendellev
s with a separate column added for
noble gases which were not discovered until then
THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE
The modern version of the periodic law is stated as :
The physical and chemical properties of the elements are the periodic functions oftheir atomic masses
LONG FORM OF THE PERIODIC TABLE
There are many forms of the periodic tale. The long form of the periodic table is the mostconvenient and the most widely used and is presented here. The horizontal rows are calledPERIODS. Elements having similar chemical and physical properties appear in vertical columnsand are known as GROUPS or FAMILIES. Altogether there are seven periods and 18 groups.
Contain only 2 elements namely
He and is the
shortest period.IInd Period
Contains 8 elements namely
Ne is known as the
short period.IIIrd Period
Contains 8 elements :
Ar. The IIIrdperiod is also known as