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p k Nag thermodynamics Solution

p k Nag thermodynamics Solution

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Published by: kyoko6 on Apr 23, 2013
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P K Nag Exercise problems - Solved 
Chapter-1: IntroductionChapter-2: TemperatureChapter-3: Work and Heat Transfer Chapter-4: First Law of ThermodynamicsChapter-5: First Law Applied to Flow ProcessChapter-6: Second Law of ThermodynamicsChapter-7: Entropy Chapter-8: Availability & Irreversibility Chapter-9: Properties of Pure SubstancesChapter-10: Properties of Gases and Gas MixtureChapter-11: Thermodynamic RelationsChapter-12: Vapour Power CyclesChapter-13: Gas Power CyclesChapter-14: Refrigeration Cycles
Solved by
Er. S K Mondal
IES Officer (Railway), GATE topper, NTPC ET-2003 batch, 12 years teachingexperienced, Author of Hydro Power Familiarization (NTPC Ltd)
Benefits of solving Exercise (unsolved) problems of P K Nag
The best ways is to study thermodynamics is through problems, you mustknow how to apply theoretical concepts through problems and to do so youmust solve these problems
It contains Expected Questions of IES, IAS, IFS and GATE examinations
It will enable the candidates to understand thermodynamics properly
It will clear all your doubts
There will be no fear of thermodynamics after solving these problems
Candidate will be in a comfortable position to appear for various competitiveexaminations
Thermodynamics- “the Backbone of Mechanical Engineering” thereforeMastering Thermodynamics is most important many of the subjects whichcome in later like Heat and Mass Transfer, Refrigeration and AirConditioning, Internal Combustion Engine will require fundamentalknowledge of Thermodynamics
Every effort has been made to see that there are no errors (typographical or otherwise) in thematerial presented. However, it is still possible that there are a few errors (serious orotherwise). I would be thankful to the readers if they are brought to my attention at the following e-mail address: swapan_mondal_01@yahoo.co.inS K Mondal
Page 2 of 265
By: S K Mondal
Chapter 1
Some Important Notes
Microscopic thermodynamics or statistical thermodynamics
Macroscopic thermodynamics or classical thermodynamics
 A quasi-static process is also called a reversible process
Intensive and Extensive Properties
Intensive property
Whose value is independent of the size or extent i.e. mass of the system.e.g., pressure
and temperature
Extensive property:
Whose value depends on the size or extent i.e. mass of the system (uppercase letters as the symbols). e.g., Volume, Mass (V, M). If mass is increased, the value of extensive property also increases. e.g., volume
internal energy
entropy S, etc.
Specific property:
It is a special case of an intensive property. It is the value of an extensiveproperty per unit mass of system. (Lower case letters as symbols) e.g: specific volume, density(
Concept of Continuum
The concept of continuum is a kind of idealization of the continuous description of matter wherethe properties of the matter are considered as continuous functions of space variables. Althoughany matter is composed of several molecules, the concept of continuum assumes a continuousdistribution of mass within the matter or system with no empty space, instead of the actualconglomeration of separate molecules.Describing a fluid flow quantitatively makes it necessary to assume that flow variables(pressure, velocity etc.) and fluid properties vary continuously from one point to another.Mathematical descriptions of flow on this basis have proved to be reliable and treatment of fluidmedium as a continuum has firmly become established.For example density at a point is normally defined as
is the volume of the fluid element and m is the massIf 
is very large
is affected by the in-homogeneities in the fluid medium. Consideringanother extreme if 
is very small, random movement of atoms (or molecules) would changetheir number at different times. In the continuum approximation point density is defined at thesmallest magnitude of 
, before statistical fluctuations become significant. This is calledcontinuum limit and is denoted by
+ +
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