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Chinese Guerilla Counter-­Offensive Military Campaigns during the Anti-Japanese War (1937-1940)

Chinese Guerilla Counter-­Offensive Military Campaigns during the Anti-Japanese War (1937-1940)

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http://www.asianarmscontrol.org/
http://www.asianarmscontrol.org/

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Published by: PotomacFoundation on Apr 23, 2013
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05/14/2014

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1
ChineseGuerillaCounter-OffensiveMilitaryCampaignsduringtheAnti-JapaneseWar(1937-1940)
1
BrookeHutchinsGOVT451:ConflictinAsiaDecember7,2012

1
“WorldWarII-PacificWar-Events,”KidportReferenceLibrary.<http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/WorldHistory/WorldWarII/WorldWarIIPacificEvents.htm>[accessed20,November2012].AnexampleofChineseAnti-Japanesepropagandaspreadduringthewar.
 
2
TableofContents
1.
 
Introduction………….………………………………………………………….……..3
2.
 
Before1937:TheContextoftheChineseGuerillaCounter-OffensiveMilitaryCampaigns
…………………………………………………………….4Japan:TheAggressororTheAggrieved?...........................................................4GeneralissimoChiangKai-Shek’sPolicyofAppeasement………………….8TheChineseCommunistParty(CCP)……………………………………………10TheBridgethatChangedEverything…………………………………………….12TheKMT-CCPUnitedFront……………………………………………………………13
3.
 
WartimeObjectives:TheGMD-CCPUnitedFrontversustheJapaneseImperialArmy………………………………………………………….14
ImperialJapaneseArmy……………………………………………………………….14TheUnitedFront…………………………………………………………………………15
4.
 
ChineseGuerillaCounter-OffensiveMilitaryCampaigns…………...17
MaoTse-tung……………………………………………………………………………….18TheApplicationofMao’sGuerillaStrategywithintheAnti-JapaneseWar……………………………………………………………………………………………...20BattleatP’inghsingkuan……………………………………………………………….21TheHundredRegimentsOffensive…………………………………………….......22AnalyzingtheDamage………………………………………………………………….23
5.
 
TheEndofGuerillaCounter-OffensiveMilitaryTactics……………26
TheNewFourthArmyIncident…………………………………………………….26
6.
 
AConcludingEvaluationofChineseGuerillaCounter-OffensiveMilitaryCampaignsduringtheAnti-JapaneseWar…………………277.
 
Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………..29
 
3
“WeCommunists,togetherwithalltheotheranti-Japanesepolitical partiesandthewholepeople,havenoothercoursethantostrivetouniteallforcesforthedefeatofthediabolicalJapaneseaggressors.” 
 2
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MaoTse-Tung,1938
1.Introduction
TheeruptionofwarbetweenChinaandJapanculminatedafteryearsofbroodinghostility.However,itwastheMarco-PoloBridgeincidentonJuly7,1937,thatmarkedthebeginningofJapan’sall-outaggressionagainstChinaandChina’sAnti-JapaneseWar.Forcedintoanuneasyunitedfront,theKuomintang(KMT)andCommunist(CCP)forcesjoinedtogethertoresisttheJapaneseinvasion.ItwasduringtheAnti-JapaneseWarthatCommunistmilitaryleaderandstrategist,MaoTse-Tung,appliedhistheoryofguerillawarfare,whichenabledtheChinesetounexpectedlyweakenthedominantJapanesemilitaryaggressionschemeandultimatelydefendChineseterritory.Mao’stactics,executedbytheEighthRouteArmyandtheNewFourthArmyNationalRevolutionaryForces,demonstratedhowguerillawarfarecouldbeusedtobuildpowerandweakenamorepowerfulaggressor.
DuetotheexhaustingsurpriseitgavetheJapanese,thispaperwillexamineChineseguerillacounter-offensivemilitarystrategyandcampaignsduringtheAnti-JapaneseWar.First,itwillprovidehistoricalbackgroundoftheyearsleadingupto1937.Second,itwillexploreboththeChineseandJapaneseobjectivesduringthewar.ThethirdsectionofthepaperwillthenexplicateMao’stheoryofguerillawarfareanditsapplicationduringthewar,highlightingbattlesthatemphasizetheeffectofguerillacounteroffensive-methodologyontheJapanese.Theessaywillendwithanevaluationoftheapplicationofguerillawarfare,exploringthesignificanceofChineseguerillawarfaretacticsrelativetotheoverallChineseagenda.Proceedingchronologicallythroughoutthedecade,thispaperwillprovideadetailedanalysisof
2
MaoTse-tung,
OnProtractedWar,
(Honolulu,HI:UniversityPressofthePacific,2001);2-3.ThisquotationwastakenfromaseriesoflecturesdeliveredbyComradeMaoTse-tungfromMay26toJune3,1938,attheYenanAssociationfortheStudyoftheWarofResistanceAgainstJapan.

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