3members would enter the NRA as individuals, not as CCP-representatives.
BackgroundThe story begins with the birth of Republic of China and the fall of last imperialdynasty in China. After the Revolution of 1911 establishing Republic of China, the Qingdynasty fell in 1912 with the abdication of prince Pu-yi. Although Sun Yat-sen was theoriginal president of the republic, he gave the title to Yuan in exchange for his convincing thePuyi to abdicate. Yuan was a man with military influence and connection with Qing, whichSun needed to stabilize China after the revolution.
However, soon Yuan and Sun becameenemies over the issue of selling Chinese assets to foreigners for funds. Sun was outraged atYuan for committing the same crime that the Manchu practiced. Sun and Yuan split here, andSun and his nationalist party had to flee before Yuan
s vast connection with provincial andlocal armies. But as Yuan himself tried to rise as emperor of China, there was a generaluproar and he was overthrown. He died quietly in 1916. Yuan
s legacy was that he hadallowed provincial and local military leaders to rise to power as he promoted a Tuchun or military governor system. While neglecting an establishment of strong imperial army, Yuanlegitimized all forces as long as they sent their revenues to Peking.
Thus the age of warringstates began.Sun Yat-sen, having founded Tengmenghui (United League) in 1905
, and havingharbored the dream to democratize China as early as 1894,
did not give up so easily. In 1918,he was called back to establish a government in Canton by Hakka general, Chen Chiung-ming.
s life was endangered twice in this alliance when Chen disagreed withSun, Sun was able to establish his Canton government by 1923.
By this time, Russia beganto talk with Sun about alliance without introducing Communism to China,
and Sun soughtoptions to democratize China by seeking support in Western countries.
But withoutrealizing his National Revolution, Sun died in 1925, leaving the project to Chiang Kai-shek.
Wikipedia, “Northern Expedition” (20 Nov 201
1), translated into English<http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=ko&sl=auto&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fzh.wikipedia.org%2Fzh%2F%25E5%258C%2597%25E4%25BC%2590> [accessed 01 Nov 2012].
pedia, “Yuan Shikai” (22 Nov 2012), <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_Shikai> [accessed 23 Nov 2012]
Duel for the Middle Kingdom
, (New York, NY: Everest House, 1980). p.67.