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Capítulo 19 (5th Edition)

Capítulo 19 (5th Edition)

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Published by: blinblinwebboy on Mar 30, 2009
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06/16/2009

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© 2000 by Harcourt College Publishers. All rights reserved.
Chapter 19 Solutions
*19.1
(a)To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius, we use
C
=59(
F
32.0) =59(98.6 32.0) = 37.0°Cand the Kelvin temperature is found as
=
C
+ 273 = 310 K(b)In a fashion identical to that used in (a), we find
C
= –20.C and
= 253 K
19.2
P
1
=
nR
1
and
P
2
=
nR
2
imply that
P
2
P
1
=
2
1
 (a)
P
2
=
P
1
2
1
=(0.980 atm)(273 + 45.0)K(273 + 20.0)K= 1.06 atm(b)
3
=
1
P
3
P
1
=(293 K)(0.500 atm)(0.980 atm)= 149 K = –124°C
19.3
Since we have a linear graph, the pressure is related to the temperature as
P
=
 A
+
 BT 
, where
 A
and
 B
are constants. To find
 A
and
 B
, we use the data0.900 atm =
 A
+ (–80.0°C)
 B
(1)1.635 atm =
 A
+ (78.0°C)
 B
(2)Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously, we find
 A
= 1.272 atmand
B
= 4.652
×
10
–3
atm/°CTherefore,
P
= 1.272 atm + (4.652
×
10
–3
atm/°C)
(a)At absolute zero
P
= 0 = 1.272 atm + (4.652
×
10
–3
atm/°C)
which gives
= –274°C
 
2
Chapter 19 Solutions
© 2000 by Harcourt College Publishers. All rights reserved.
(b)At the freezing point of water
P
= 1.272 atm + 0 = 1.27 atm(c)and at the boiling point
P
= 1.272 atm + (4.652
×
10
–3
atm/°C)(100°C) = 1.74 atm
19.4
Let us use
C
=59(
F
32.0) with
F
= 40.0°C. We find
C
=59(– 40.0 – 32.0) = – 40.0°C
19.5
(a)
F
=95 
C
+ 32.0°F =95(–195.81) + 32.0 = –320°F(b)
=
C
+ 273.15 = –195.81 + 273.15 = 77.3 K
19.6
Require0.00°C =
a
(–15.0°S) +
b
100°C =
a
(60.0°S) +
b
Subtracting, 100°C =
a
(75.0°S)
a
= 1.33 C°/S°Then 0.00°C = 1.33(–15.0°S)+
bb
= 20.0°CSo the conversion is
C
= (1.33 C°/)
S
+ 20.0°C
19.7
(a)
= 450 C° = 450 C°
    
212°F – 32.0°F100°C – 0.00°C= 810 (b)
= 450 = 450 K
19.8
(a)
= 1064 + 273 = 1337 K melting point
= 2660 + 273 = 2933 K boiling point(b)
= 1596 = 1596 K The differences are the same.
 
C
hapter 19 Solutions3
© 2000 by Harcourt College Publishers. All rights reserved.
19.9
The wire is 35.0 m long when
C
= –20.0°C
 L
=
 L
i
 
α 
(
i
)
α 
 
 
α 
(20.0°C) = 1.70
×
10
–5
(C
°
)
–1
for Cu.
 L
= (35.0 m)(1.70
×
10
–5
(C
°
)
–1
()
35.0°C – (–20.0°C) = +3.27 cm
Goal SolutionG:
Based on everyday observations of telephone wires, we might expect the wire to expand byless than a meter since the change in length of these wires is generally not noticeable.
O:
The change in length can be found from the linear expansion of copper wire (we will assumethat the insulation around the copper wire can stretch more easily than the wire itself).From Table 19.2, the coefficient of linear expansion for copper is 17
×
10
–6
(
°
C)
–1
.
A:
The change in length between cold and hot conditions is
 L
=
α 
 L
0
= [17
×
10
–6
(
°
C)
–1
](35.0 m)(35.0
°
C – (–20.0
°
C))
 L
= 3.27
×
10
–2
m or
 L
= 3.27 cm
L:
This expansion is well under our expected limit of a meter. From
 L
, we can find that the wiresags 0.757 m at its midpoint on the hot summer day, which also seems reasonable based oneveryday observations.
19.10
 L
=
 L
i
α 
= (25.0 m)(12.0
×
10
–6
 /C°)(40.0 C°) = 1.20 cm
19.11
(a)
 L
=
α
 L
i
= 24.0
×
10-
6
(C°)-
1
(3.0000 m)(80.0°C) = 0.00576 m
 L f 
 = 3.0058 m(b)
 L
= 24.0
×
10-
6
(C°)-
1
(3.0000 m)(–20.0°C) = 0.0014
 L
 f 
= 2.9986 m
19.12
(a)
L
Al
(1 +
α 
Al
 
) =
 L
Brass
(1 +
α 
Brass
 
)
=
 L
Al
 L
Brass
 L
Brass
 
α 
Brass
 L
Al
 
α 
Al
 
=(10.01 – 10.00)(10.00)(19.0
×
10
–6
) – (10.01)(24.0
×
10
–6
) 
= –199 so
= –179°C This is attainable.

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