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Table Of Contents

WHY DO WE USE WHAT WE DO?
Properties make the difference
Where do these materials come from?
Moving apart—separating substances
IN THE BEGINNING…
Atoms—similar yet different?
Elements—what’s the difference?
Abundance of elements of the Earth
Using materials—looking at properties
Organising elements—the Periodic Table
COMING TOGETHER—ELEMENTS MAKING COMPOUNDS
What determines properties?
Why compounds?
What’s in a name?
USING THINGS UP—KEEPING TRACK OF ATOMS
Making the aluminium can
How much? Chemical quantities!
Avoiding waste—green chemistry
WATER IS EVERYWHERE
ICE AND WATER—THE DENSITY PHENOMENON
WATER—A SHAPELY MOLECULE
Molecules in liquid water and ice
WATER GOING PLACES IN PLANTS
Capillary action
From roots to leaves
BLOOD IS THICKER THAN WATER
Dissolving inorganic salts and ions
Water of crystallisation
Dissolving organic molecules
Changing molecules
Dissolving gases—oxygen
Dissolving gases—carbon dioxide
Dissolving by reacting
Effect of solutes upon melting and boiling points of water
GETTING THINGS IN AND OUT OF CELLS
A word of warning
REPLACING WATER
Guidelines for drinking water quality
THE WATER CYCLE
WATER—GOOD ENOUGH TO DRINK?
TREATING WATER
Why does the aluminium hydroxide form a precipitate?
Disinfecting water
Balancing the treatment
To add fluoride?
WATER HARD OR SOFT?
Water softening
Investigating water hardness
Scale
BOTTLED WATER OR TAP WATER?
Types of bottled water
LOOKING AFTER OUR WATER SUPPLIES
How can water practices on the land affect what happens in the sea?
Increased concentration of suspended particles
Increased inorganic nutrients
Increased organic materials
Increased heavy metals
MONITORING WATER QUALITY
Temperature tests
pH tests
Salinity tests
Total dissolved solids tests
Turbidity tests
Nitrate tests
Phosphate tests
Dissolved oxygen tests
Biochemical oxygen demand test
Coliforms test
Heavy metal tests
USING ENERGY
The reciprocating internal combustion engine
Main systems of the engine—fuel and ignition
The ignition system
TURNING CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO MECHANICAL ENERGY
Fuels and energy
Energy value
WHAT A WONDERFUL ENERGY SOURCE PETROL IS—OR IS IT?
What is petrol and where do we get it?
Improving petrol’s properties
PETROL IS POLLUTING
Greenhouse effect
Photochemical smog and acid rain
i acid rain ii photochemical smog
What can we do?
CARS, METALS AND CORROSION
THE COMPOSITION OF AIR—WHAT WE REALLY BREATHE
Earth’s air
Take a breath
INVESTIGATING GASES OF THE AIR
USING AIR
Squeezing air
The heat is on
Calculating how much
Mixtures of gases
THE ATMOSPHERE
Structure of the atmosphere
MAIN POLLUTANTS IN OUR AIR
National air quality standards
Monitoring air quality
OZONE—THE GOOD AND THE BAD
Ozone in the stratosphere—here today, gone tomorrow
Disappearing ozone
A closer look at the ozone hole
Ozone in the streets—here to stay?
GLOBAL WARMING—A HOT TOPIC
Earth’s energy balance
Living in a greenhouse
Calculating carbon dioxide
1.1 SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES
1.2 PARTICLE NATURE OF MATTER
1.3 MIXTURES AND PURE SUBSTANCES
1.4 ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS
1.5 ATOMS AND MOLECULES
1.6 SYMBOLS FOR ELEMENTS
1.7 FORMULAE
1.8 MOLECULES OF ELEMENTS
1.9 SEPARATING MIXTURES
1.10 AN ATOM—A NUCLEUS AND AN ELECTRON CLOUD
1.11 SOME SIMPLE ATOMS
1.12 ATOMIC NUMBER AND MASS NUMBER
1.13 ISOTOPES
1.15 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES
1.16 METALS AND NON-METALS
1.17 THE PERIODIC TABLE
1.18 ELECTRON ARRANGEMENTS IN ATOMS
1.19 STABLE ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS
1.20 THE PERIODIC TABLE AND ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
2.1 FORMATION OF IONS
2.2 IONIC BONDING AND THE PERIODIC TABLE
2.3 COVALENT BONDING
2.4 COVALENCY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE
2.5 ELECTRON-DOT STRUCTURES FOR IONS
2.6 PROPERTIES OF COVALENT MOLECULAR AND IONIC SUBSTANCES
2.7 COVALENT NETWORK SOLIDS
2.8 METALLIC BONDING
2.9 PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS SUMMARISED
2.10 FORMULAE AND NAMES FOR COMPOUNDS
2.11 FORMULAE FOR IONIC COMPOUNDS
2.12 NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS
2.13 IONS THAT ARE NOT MONATOMIC
2.14 FORMULAE FOR COVALENT COMPOUNDS
2.15 NAMING COVALENT BINARY COMPOUNDS
2.16 EQUATIONS FOR CHEMICAL REACTIONS
3.1 RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS (MOLECULAR WEIGHT)
3.2 RELATIVE FORMULA MASS (FORMULA WEIGHT)
3.3 THE MOLE
3.4 MOLES OF GASEOUS ELEMENTS
3.5 CONVERTING BETWEEN MASS, MOLES AND NUMBERS OF ATOMS OR MOLECULES
3.6 PER CENT COMPOSITION
3.7 MOLES AND CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
3.8 MASS CALCULATIONS FROM CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
4.1 STRUCTURE OF WATER AND OTHER SIMPLE COMPOUNDS
4.2 POLAR COVALENT BONDS
4.3 DIPOLE–DIPOLE FORCES
4.4 HYDROGEN BONDS
4.5 PREDICTING SHAPES OF MOLECULES
5.1 AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF IONIC COMPOUNDS
5.2 WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION AND HYDRATES
5.3 AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES
5.4 MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES THAT REACT WITH WATER
5.5 SOLUBILITY SUMMARISED
5.6 PRECIPITATION REACTIONS
5.7 SOLUBILITY DATA
5.8 USING THE SOLUBIL ITY TABLE
5.9 SATURATED SOLUTION, CONCENTRATION, SOLUBILITY
5.10 DIFFERENT MEASURES OF CONCENTRATION
5.11 MOLARITY
6.1 THE ELEMENT CARBON
6.2 DOUBLE AND TRIPLE COVALENT BONDS
6.3 CARBON–CARBON BONDS
6.4 ALKANES
6.5 ALKENES
6.6 ALKYNES
6.7 REACTIONS OF ALKANES
6.8 REACTIONS OF ALKENES
6.9 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
7.1 EXOTHERMIC AND ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS
7.2 ENTHALPY
7.6 HEAT OF COMBUSTION
7.7 TWO BASIC DRIVES: ENERGY AND ENTROPY
7.8 ACTIVATION ENERGY
7.9 MEANING OF RATE OF REACTION
7.10 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RATE OF REACTION
7.11 EXPLANATIONS
7.12 TEMPERATURE EFFECT AND ACTIVATION ENERGY
8.1 PRESSURE AND THE PARTICLE NATURE OF GASES
8.2 DIFFUSION
8.3 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
8.4 AVOGADRO’S LAW
8.5 BOYLE’S LAW
8.6 CHARLES’ LAW
8.7 COMBINED GAS LAW
8.8 IDEAL GAS EQUATION
8.9 DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURES
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Chemistry in Use - Book 1

Chemistry in Use - Book 1

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Published by Sarah Mecklem

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Published by: Sarah Mecklem on Apr 24, 2013
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10/21/2014

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