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PT & MT Level II

PT & MT Level II

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Published by Balakumar
NDT Level II Material for PT & MT
NDT Level II Material for PT & MT

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Published by: Balakumar on Apr 24, 2013
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CONTENTS
1.GENERAL KNOWLEDGE.............................................................................................11.1.Basic principles of non-destructive testing (NDT)................................................11.1.1.Definition and importance of NDT...........................................................11.1.2.Types of NDT methods.............................................................................11.1.3.Visual testing (VT)....................................................................................21.1.4.Liquid penetrant testing (PT)....................................................................31.1.5.Magnetic particle testing (MT).................................................................51.1.6.Eddy current testing (ET)..........................................................................71.1.7.Radiographic testing method (RT)..........................................................101.1.8.Ultrasonic testing (UT)............................................................................141.1.9.Comparison of different NDT methods..................................................161.2.Materials and defects...........................................................................................161.2.1.Structure of metals and alloys.................................................................161.2.2.Properties of materials (metallic & non-metallic)...................................231.2.3.Discontinuities and defects in metallic materials....................................271.3.Processing and defects.........................................................................................281.3.1.Primary processes and related defects.....................................................281.3.2.Manufacturing processes and related defects..........................................421.4.Materials in service..............................................................................................801.4.1.Behaviour of materials in service............................................................801.4.2.Conditions leading to defects and failures..............................................801.4.3.Concepts of rupture development in metals............................................881.5.Quality and standardization.................................................................................881.5.1.Quality.....................................................................................................881.5.2.Quality control.........................................................................................891.5.3.Quality assurance....................................................................................891.5.4.Examination and testing..........................................................................891.5.5.Inspection................................................................................................901.5.6.Process of standardization.......................................................................901.5.7.Guides and recommended practices........................................................901.5.8.Standards.................................................................................................901.5.9.Codes and specifications.........................................................................911.5.10.Procedure.................................................................................................911.5.11.Protocols..................................................................................................911.5.12.Report......................................................................................................911.5.13.Records....................................................................................................911.5.14.Development of a quality system............................................................912.PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF THE TEST (PT)............................................................972.1.General description of the method......................................................................972.2.Properties of liquid penetrants.............................................................................972.2.1.Viscosity..................................................................................................972.2.2.Surface tension........................................................................................982.2.3.Angle of contact between liquid and solid..............................................992.2.4.Capillarity................................................................................................992.3.Behaviour of liquid penetrants..........................................................................1002.3.1.Wettability.............................................................................................100
 
2.3.2.Penetrability..........................................................................................1002.3.3.Washability............................................................................................1012.3.4.Retention and bleeding..........................................................................1012.3.5.Influence of surface state of the sample, thecontamination and temperature.............................................................1012.4.Solutions and dispersions..................................................................................1022.4.1.Solvents.................................................................................................1022.4.2.Dispersive agents...................................................................................1022.4.3.Emulsifiers............................................................................................1022.5.Mechanism of development..............................................................................1032.5.1.Granulometry of powders......................................................................1032.5.2.Types and phenomena of fine powder aggregation...............................1032.5.3.Suspension of powders in liquids..........................................................1042.6.Luminous and ultravoilet spectrum...................................................................1052.6.1.Colour & fluorescence..........................................................................1052.6.2.Colours..................................................................................................1052.6.3.Absorption of light................................................................................1062.6.4.Beer's law..............................................................................................1062.6.5.Fluorescent pigments.............................................................................1062.7.Basic formulation of penetrating liquids with oily andnon oily base......................................................................................................1062.7.1.Additives and conditioners....................................................................1062.8.Removers used in the process............................................................................1072.8.1.Basic formulation and properties..........................................................1072.8.2.Emulsifiers............................................................................................1072.8.3.Lipophilic and hydrophilic agents.........................................................1073.PROCESSING (PT)......................................................................................................1093.1.Reparation of the work-pieces, treatment, identification and protection of the areas not to be examined........................................................1093.1.1.Treatment..............................................................................................1093.1.2.Identification.........................................................................................1093.2.Cleaning prior to inspection..............................................................................1103.2.1.Various techniques applicable...............................................................1103.2.2.Conditions and limitations of thedifferent cleaning techniques................................................................1113.2.3.Comparison of the effectiveness of the different techniquesin relation to the surface state of the specimen.....................................1123.3.Conditions and requirements for the different drying stages.............................1123.3.1.Use of cold and hot air..........................................................................1123.3.2.Temperature and time............................................................................1123.4.Inspection process..............................................................................................1133.4.1.Application of penetrating agent...........................................................1133.4.2.Removal of excess penetrating agent....................................................1163.4.3.Conditions for the application of lipophilic andhydrophilic emulsifiers..........................................................................1193.4.4.Application of the developer.................................................................1193.5.Observation of indications.................................................................................1223.5.1.Lighting conditions for coloured liquids andUV radiation for fluorescent liquids......................................................122
 
3.5.2.Sequence and time of observation.........................................................1223.5.3.Interpretation of the findings and identification of thetype of defects.......................................................................................1223.5.4.Spurious or non-relevant indications....................................................1253.6.Recording of findings........................................................................................1263.6.1.Test report forms...................................................................................1263.6.2.Localization schemes............................................................................1263.6.3.Transfer of findings...............................................................................1263.6.4.Photographic techniques.......................................................................1263.6.5.Writing reports......................................................................................1273.7.Testing techniques for detection of leaks by means of liquid penetrants..........1284.TEST EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (PT)...........................................................1294.1.Evaluation of the materials used in the test.......................................................1294.1.1.Penetrating agents.................................................................................1294.1.2.Removers...............................................................................................1354.1.3.Emulsifiers............................................................................................1364.1.4.Developers.............................................................................................1364.2.Cleaning equipment...........................................................................................1414.2.1.Degreasing vapour.................................................................................1414.2.2.Ultrasonic cleaning................................................................................1424.3.Compressed air equipment................................................................................1434.3.1.Air filters...............................................................................................1434.3.2.Supply of cold and hot air.....................................................................1434.3.3.Compressed air pistols..........................................................................1434.3.4.Electrostatic pulverizers........................................................................1444.3.5.Aerosoles...............................................................................................1454.4.Stationary installations for processing by immersion........................................1454.4.1.Stations..................................................................................................1454.4.2.Auxiliary equipment..............................................................................1494.4.3.Automatic installations..........................................................................1504.5.Light sources and light meters...........................................................................1524.5.1.Ultraviolet (UV) radiation sources (black light) andmeters for measuring UV radiation intensity........................................1524.5.2.Measurement of ultraviolet radiation intensity.....................................1544.5.3.Checking the efficiency of ultraviolet lamps........................................1554.5.4.Cabinets for observation of fluorescent penetrating liquids..................1554.6.Standardized work pieces for evaluating processes andqualifying procedures........................................................................................1564.6.1.Comparator test blocks..........................................................................1564.6.2.Non-standardized test pieces for checking penetrability.......................1584.6.3.Equipment for checking fluorescence efficiency of UV lamps..............................................................................................1585.CODES, STANDARDS, PROCEDURES AND SAFETY (PT).................................1615.1.Standards applicable to liquid penetrant testing................................................1615.1.1.Test methods.........................................................................................1615.1.2.Materials for the test..............................................................................1625.1.3.American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code.................1625.2.Test specifications and procedures....................................................................164

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