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On the Efficacy of Content-Centric Networking Applied to Internet-Based MANETs

On the Efficacy of Content-Centric Networking Applied to Internet-Based MANETs

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Published by Bryce Thomas
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Published by: Bryce Thomas on Apr 24, 2013
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On the Efficacy of Content-Centric Networking Applied toInternet-based MANETs
Bryce Thomas
James Cook University
bryce.m.thomas@gmail.comRaja Jurdak
raja.jurdak@csiro.auIan Atkinson
James Cook University
Content-Centric Networking (CCN) is an architecture whichtreats chunks of named content as the primary network ab-straction rather than host addresses. CCN is designed tomake content dissemination more efficient by allowing con-tent to be cached at and retrieved from any device in thenetwork, including typically terminal nodes such as mobilephones and laptops. CCN may therefore be an effective wayto reduce the ever-increasing load on fixed wireless network-ing infrastructure by enabling popular Internet-originatingcontent to percolate directly between end-user devices, i.e.,an Internet-based Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET). Theefficacy of such a scheme is limited in large part by thelevel of content homogeneity and mobility patterns withinthe MANET. In a step towards understanding the efficacy of CCN in Internet-based MANETs, we seek to perform trace-driven simulations of content dissemination among Wi-Fidevices in a large university campus setting.
There is currently much interest in the research com-munity around Content-centric Networking [2](CCN) asa potential “Future Internet” architecture. CCN usespacket-sized chunks of named content as the Layer 3network primitive, rather than host addresses. CCN in-tends to make networks more efficient by allowing thesechunks of content to be cached at and retrieved fromany node in the network, including end-user devices.Our contribution is to evaluate the efficacy of CCN forone specific purpose: reducing the load on wireless net-working infrastructure.The proliferation of Internet-enabled mobile devicesand the seemingly insatiable demand of these devicesfor faster and more voluminous data places a peren-nial strain on wireless infrastructure. CCN as appliedto an Internet-based MANET may provide a solution tothis problem by enabling duplicate content to be shareddirectly between co-located peer devices. By using real-world packet and mobility traces to model cases whereInternet-originating content could have been shared viaMANET, we seek to gauge the efficacy of CCN in re-ducing load on wireless infrastructure.
In order to simulate CCN as applied to an Internet-based MANET we employ two key traces: i) a times-tamped list of “encounters” describing when any twowireless devices come into and leave transmission rangeof one another and ii) a timestamped list of content re-ceived by devices from the infrastructure. Given thesetraces we seek to simulate CCN-based content shar-ing under a further set of parameterized constraints,i.e., available bandwidth, routing strategy, cache size,etcetera. The desired result of our simulation is a per-centage figure indicating what portion of all downloadedcontent could have been acquired through the MANETrather than relying on the infrastructure.
In this section we describe our simulation method inthe context of Wi-Fi mobility and data traces.
3.1 Dataset
We are collecting mobility and data traces describ-ing the activity of all 802.11 devices using the JamesCook University (JCU) Wi-Fi network. The mobil-ity trace describes when a particular device connectsto and disconnects from one of the approximately 500Access Points (APs) on campus. We approximate an“encounter” between devices A and B to occur when-ever A and B are concurrently connected to the sameAP.The data trace is a
packet capture of all trafficsent to Wi-Fi devices via campus APs. This captureencapsulates all of the content devices are currently re-trieving from the infrastructure.
3.2 Trace Preprocessing
data trace is a full Layer 2 packet cap-ture. To simulate
dissemination in a protocol-independent manner, we strip each layer’s protocol head-ers leaving only the application content. This is a rela-tively straight-forward process at the highly standard-ized lower layers of the network stack. Stripping appli-cation layer headers is somewhat more complex as there1
Figure 1: Simulation data structures.
are many application layer protocols in use, each withdifferent parsing rules. To keep our analysis tractable,we select a small subset of all application layer proto-cols like HTTP which account for a large percentage of traffic and for which reliable and accurate parsers exist.
3.3 Simulation Sketch
In this section we sketch a proposed three step methodof execution for simulating CCN dissemination in Internet-based MANETs. Our method requires random accessto large quantities of data and is intended to be run ona large cluster. However, due to space limitations, wedescribe our approach as though executed on a singlemachine.
Step 1:
We first create i) a
content store 
listing theapplication layer content downloaded by each deviceover the duration of the trace and ii) a
fingerprint store 
used for identifying duplicate content across devices (Fig-ure 1). The content store contains for each device abinary encoded, chronologically ordered bit stream of timestamped content, where timestamps are derived fromthe
trace file. Our fingerprint store is inspired bythe work of Anand et al.[1] on redundant traffic elimina-tion and uses a sliding hash function known as a Rabinfingerprint [3] to calculate a set of representative finger-prints over
-byte substrings of a device’s downloadedcontent. Each fingerprint in the fingerprint store main-tains a list of pointers into the content store creating amapping between fingerprints and the times at whichthey appear in specific device’s downloaded content.
Step 2:
We then create a single data structure, the
exchange record 
, which stores for each device a record of what other device’s content was received at what time.This data structure is built by performing a discreteevent simulation of device encounters and the respectivecontent transfer under the parameterized constraints.Rather than storing actual exchanged content in the ex-change record, we store a list of four-tuples of the form
cr, co, tsr, coi 
is the id of the device receivingthe content,
is the id of the device at which the con-tent
(not the device from which the content
Figure 2:
receives relevant and timely contentfrom
is being received),
is the timestamp of when
re-ceives the content and
is a time interval describingthe period of 
’s content
Step 3:
Finally, we synthesize the data structuresassembled in Steps 1 and 2 to identify those instanceswhere a device could have received a portion
of itsrequested content from the MANET, eliminating theneed to resort to the infrastructure. We identify twocriteria for device
to receive content
associated withfingerprint
from device
in time to eliminate theneed for
to retrieve
from the infrastructure: i)
must have access to content from
with an intervalthat encapsulates the interval of 
’s appearance in
ii)this access must come at a time prior to when
wouldnormally download
from the infrastructure (Figure 2).The fingerprint store provides us with a list of devicesin which
occurs and at what times. The exchangerecord tells us which of these devices received contentfrom one or more of the other devices and whetherany of this content came from an interval encapsulat-ing when
occurred. The exchange record and fin-gerprint store combined therefore determine whether
receives usable content from
. Where it is determinedthat
receives usable content from
, we dereferencethe two fingerprint pointers into the content store andexpand the match region left and right until either anon-matching byte is encountered or
s interval is nolonger encapsulated inside the interval of content avail-able at
. We then flag this region of 
as a portion of content that may have feasibly been retrieved from theMANET.
By simulating CCN content dissemination in an Internet-based MANET using real packet and mobility traces, wehope to inform the discussion on whether CCN com-bined with MANET is a viable strategy for reducingload on wireless infrastructure. While our own analy-sis is limited to a campus environment, our conceptualframework allows others to perform comparable analy-ses in other environments.2

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