use electromagnetic ﬁelds to sense prey and to navigate.
Electromagnetic ﬁelds are also involved in neural membrane function;even protein conformation involves the interactions of electrical ﬁelds.
But as has often been the case in the history of science, thoughthese were interesting observations, they were disconnected bits andpieces that made no real impact; they didn't ﬁt the frame of reference of the time.
Further, the technology and techniques needed to do muchwith the information did not exist.
Thus, the very broad importance of the interactions of electromagnetic ﬁelds with biological systems wasnot really recognized.
But that was yesterday.
Now, as James Burke
might put it, is (ﬁguratively) the day the Universe changed.
Organization of the chapters
In the next chapter, the second, I integrate many of the abovementioned disconnected bits and pieces and show how they areexpressions of a common theme.
In this way, I provide a context orstructure for viewing the information provided in the following chapters.
The third chapter is a review, from the biophysical standpoint, of databearing on cell mechanisms.
The authors of the fourth through sixthchapters provide models for mechanisms at the cell membrane, some