is the alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of the juice of freshlygathered ripe grapes, the fermentation taking place in the district of origin according to localtradition and practice.
The modern English
old English win
pronounced like modern
. The oldEnglish form was in turn descended from the
, or as the
Welsh gwin, Irish fion, Russian vino,
Lithuanian vynas andLatvian vins
are the subsequent derivatives.Three factors govern the appreciation of wine--
colour, aroma and taste
. A wine must be clear and brilliant, have a clean, pleasant bouquet, and should have a clean, sound, pleasant taste on the palate. The colour also gives the first indication of the wine’s body; the deeper the colour, thefuller it will be.
may be classified in several ways, the most usual being by alcohol level. Those whosealcoholic strength is entirely due to fermentation, and is usually in the range of 9-15%, are whatare called simply wine or sometimes table wine. Such wines may be further classified by colour into
Red Wines, White Wines and Rose’ Wines
Or they may be classified according to their concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide as
Sparkling Wines, Still Wines
, etc. Such wine types may also be classified according to
.Wines with higher concentrations of alcohol, between 15-over 20%, are called
asthey owe some of their alcoholic strength to the process of fortification, or the addition of spirit.
are somewhat amorphous category of wines, whose basic wine grape flavour ismodified by the addition of other flavouring materials such as herbs, spices, flowers, nuts, honey,etc. Wines which have been deliberately manipulated so that their alcohol levels are as low as below 5.5% are called
Low Alcohol Wines
. Wine Types may also be classified according to whenthey are drunk into
Aperitif Wines, Food
Wines or Dinner Wines
Sweet Wines or Dessert Wines
CONTENTS OF WINE
Water – 86 %Alcohol – 10-12 %Glycerol – 1 %Organic acids – 0.4 %Carbohydrates (Unfermented sugars) – 0.2 %Minerals – 0.2 %Tannins and colour pigments – 0.1 %Acetic Acid – 0.04 % Nitrogenous matter – 0.02 %Higher alcohols (propyl, methyl and butyl) – 0.01 %Traces of vitamins
FACTORS AFFECTING WINE QUALITY
A number of factors affect wine quality, the most important being the type of grape used. Other factors are soil, climate, location and vintage.
All the vine stock in the world may have originated from one Indo-Europeanspecies called
from which we now have over 4000 varieties. Of these, only 40 arereally well-known to wine-lovers, and there exists only a handful of classic, internationally famousvine stocks. Grapes, whether red or white, can be distinguished from one another, mainly by their flavour and how pleasant they taste. There are
cépages nobles or cépages fins,
which are notablefor their strength and the unusual nature of their bouquet.
only reveal their prowess when grown on particular terrain. Finally,
are known more for their fertility than flavour.
Ten CLASSIC VINES
include five red vines and five white vines: