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Published by sourovbhowmick
personal notes on different types of wines, processes and examples with indian prospectus
personal notes on different types of wines, processes and examples with indian prospectus

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Published by: sourovbhowmick on Mar 30, 2009
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is the alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of the juice of freshlygathered ripe grapes, the fermentation taking place in the district of origin according to localtradition and practice.
The modern English
comes from
old English win
pronounced like modern
. The oldEnglish form was in turn descended from the
 Latin vinum
, or as the
wrote it
German wein
Welsh gwin, Irish fion, Russian vino,
Lithuanian vynas andLatvian vins
are the subsequent derivatives.Three factors govern the appreciation of wine--
colour, aroma and taste
. A wine must be clear and brilliant, have a clean, pleasant bouquet, and should have a clean, sound, pleasant taste on the palate. The colour also gives the first indication of the wine’s body; the deeper the colour, thefuller it will be.
Wine Types
may be classified in several ways, the most usual being by alcohol level. Those whosealcoholic strength is entirely due to fermentation, and is usually in the range of 9-15%, are whatare called simply wine or sometimes table wine. Such wines may be further classified by colour into
Red Wines, White Wines and Rose’ Wines
Or they may be classified according to their concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide as
Sparkling Wines, Still Wines
, etc. Such wine types may also be classified according to
.Wines with higher concentrations of alcohol, between 15-over 20%, are called
Fortified Wines,
asthey owe some of their alcoholic strength to the process of fortification, or the addition of spirit.
 Aromatised Wines
are somewhat amorphous category of wines, whose basic wine grape flavour ismodified by the addition of other flavouring materials such as herbs, spices, flowers, nuts, honey,etc. Wines which have been deliberately manipulated so that their alcohol levels are as low as below 5.5% are called
Low Alcohol Wines
. Wine Types may also be classified according to whenthey are drunk into
 Aperitif Wines, Food 
Wines or Dinner Wines
, and
 Sweet Wines or Dessert Wines
Water 86 %Alcohol 10-12 %Glycerol 1 %Organic acids 0.4 %Carbohydrates (Unfermented sugars) 0.2 %Minerals 0.2 %Tannins and colour pigments 0.1 %Acetic Acid 0.04 % Nitrogenous matter 0.02 %Higher alcohols (propyl, methyl and butyl) 0.01 %Traces of vitamins
A number of factors affect wine quality, the most important being the type of grape used. Other factors are soil, climate, location and vintage.
All the vine stock in the world may have originated from one Indo-Europeanspecies called
Vitis Vinifera,
from which we now have over 4000 varieties. Of these, only 40 arereally well-known to wine-lovers, and there exists only a handful of classic, internationally famousvine stocks. Grapes, whether red or white, can be distinguished from one another, mainly by their flavour and how pleasant they taste. There are
cépages nobles or cépages fins,
which are notablefor their strength and the unusual nature of their bouquet.
Cépages demi-fins
only reveal their  prowess when grown on particular terrain. Finally,
cépages communs
are known more for their fertility than flavour.
include five red vines and five white vines:
Cabernet Sauvignon SyrahPinot Noir Cabernet FrancMerlot
Riesling ChardonnayGewürztraminer MuscatSauvignon Blanc
The soil has many attributes that can influence the vine grown in it, and thence the qualityof both grapes and wine.
that should be present for the best soils for wine qualityare:
moderately deep to deep soil
fairly light textured, often with gravel through much of the profile and at the surface
free draining
sufficiently high inorganic matter to give soil friability, a healthy worm population, and adequatenutrient-holding capacity, but not particularly high in organic matter.
overall, relatively infertile, supplying enough mineral elements for healthy vine growth, but onlyenough nitrogen early in the season to promote moderate vegetative vigour.
The best wines come from soils that are very well drained, and furnish a steady, but onlymoderate, water supply to the vines. Soil Colour affects soil temperature and that of the air immediately above. Dark coloured soils or rocks absorb most of the incoming light energy andconvert it to heat, and so are warmer than light coloured soils, and at night and during cloudy days,radiate more warmth back to the vines and bunches. This may be especially beneficial to redgrapes, which in general need more warmth than white grapes to ripen fully. Usually, stony androcky soils produce many of the world’s great wines. Soils formed from chalk and limestone arevery favourable to good wine, due to their relation to free drainage and the ability of the subsoil tostore water.
Climate influences the styles of wine that an area can produce best. A wide range of styles is possible, ranging from the light, delicate table wines that are in general best produced incool viticultural climates, to the full-bodied, sweet fortified wines that need warm and very sunnyclimates.
Average mean temperature during ripening strongly influences potentialwine style. Within the range of 15-21°C, the natural styles vary from light, fresh and aromaticat the cooler end, to full bodied and full flavoured at the warmer end. Regions with the coolestripening temperatures produce almost exclusively delicate white wines; those with warmripening, produce full bodied wines that might be either white or red. The less variable theripening temperatures (both between night and day, and from day to day), the better is likely to be the wine quality.
Sunlight duration acts mainly by controlling sugar in grapes and therefore potential wine alcohol content at a given stage of physiological ripening. The availability of ample sunlight ensures a strong and constant sugar flow to the ripening grapes, which assuresnot only their sweetness and sufficient alcohol in the wine, but also that colour, flavour andaroma compounds are not limited by a lack of sugar substrate for their formation. Timing of the sunlight is important. The most critical period for quality is around the start of ripening.Good conditions then assure an ample reserve of sugar in the vine, both for early conversion inthe leaves and berries into flavour and aroma compounds, or their precursors, and so that sugar and flavour ripening of the berries can continue unabated under the cooler and less sunnyconditions encountered later.
For vines depending directly on rainfall, there needs to be enough rain, at theright times, to promote adequate growth and to avoid severe water stress during ripening.Heavy rain during ripening can lead to temporary juice dilution and sometimes to incompleteripening, especially if accompanied by lack of sunshine. Wet ripening periods commonly
signal poor vintages. Heavy rain close to maturity is especially damaging, because it can cause berry splitting and subsequent fungal infection of the bunches. Hail can be totally devastating.
Virtually all the world’s acknowledged greattable wines come from regions with moderately high relative humidities and low evaporation.This is partly because of their lack of stress and through their usually restricted temperaturevariability. Strong evaporative demands place the vines under water stress, which in extremecases, can cause leaf loss and substantial collapse of vine metabolism. Fruit damage oftenfollows through excessive exposure to the overhead sun.
Vintage means the physical process of grape picking and wine-making. The singlemost critical aspect of vintage or harvest is its timing, choosing that point during the graperipening process when the grape is physiologically mature and the balance between its naturalaccumulation of sugars and its decreasing tally of natural plant acids is optimal. Timing of harvestis additionally complicated by the fact that the fruit in different parts of a single vineyard may varyin ripeness.
 Noble Rot, also known as
“pouritture noble”
in French,
in German,
inItalian, and sometimes, simply as
is the benevolent form of 
Botrytis Bunch Rot
inwhich the
“Botrytis Cinera
“fungus attacks ripe , undamaged white wine grapes and, given theright weather, can result in extremely sweet grapes which may look disgusting but have undergonesuch a complex transformation that they are capable of producing probably the world’s finest, andcertainly the longest living, sweet wines. The malevolent form, which results if the grapes aredamaged, unripe, or conditions are unfavourable, is known as “Grey Rot”.Ideal conditions for the development of noble rot are a temperate climate, in which the humidityassociated with early morning mists that favour the development of the fungus is followed bywarm, sunny autumn afternoons in which the grapes are dried and the progress of the fungus isrestrained. In cloudy conditions in which the humidity is unchecked, the fungus may spread sorapidly that the grape skins split and the grapes succumb to grey rot. If however, the weather isvery hot and dry, then the fungus will not develop at all and the grapes will simply accumulatesugar rather than undergoing the chemical transformations, resulting in less complex sweet wines.
The transformations due to noble rot is as follows
Grapes turn golden, pink, or purple, then in aseverely dehydrated state, they turn brown, shrivel to a sort of moist raisin, and seem to be coveredwith fine grey powder. Inside the grape, more than half of the grape’s water content is lost dueeither directly to the action of the fungus or to loss by evaporation. Meanwhile, Botrytis Cineraconsumes both the sugar in grapes, and acids, so that the overall effect is to increase the sugar concentration, or 
 Must Weight 
, considerably in an ever-decreasing quantity of juice.
The fungusreduces a grape’s sugar concentration by a third, tartaric acid by five-sixths, and malic acidby a third.
While it metabolizes these sugars and acids, the fungus forms a wide range of chemicalcompounds in the grape juice, including
Glycerol, Acetic
 Acid, Gluconic Acid 
, various
, and an antibiotic substance called
The Phenolics in the grapeskins are broken down by the fungus and the tannins released into the juice.
Grey Rot, sometimes known as grey mould, is the
malevolent form of Botrytis Bunch Rot
, andone of the most harmful of the fungal diseases that attack vines. In this form of rot, the BotrytisCinera fungus rapidly spreads throughout the berry flesh and the skin breaks down. Other fungiand bacteria then also invade the berry and the grapes become rotten. Badly infected grapes smellmouldy and red wines look pale and grey-brown.

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