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Goldbach's Conjecture

Goldbach's Conjecture

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Published by Ciro D'Urso
Theoretical and practical approach to Goldbach's Conjecture. It is provided a set of suitable algorithms in order to find a pair of primes according to GC.
http://ejmathsci.org/index.php/ejmathsci
Theoretical and practical approach to Goldbach's Conjecture. It is provided a set of suitable algorithms in order to find a pair of primes according to GC.
http://ejmathsci.org/index.php/ejmathsci

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Published by: Ciro D'Urso on Apr 24, 2013
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EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES
 Vol. 2, No. 2, 2013, 152-167ISSN 2147-5512 www.ejmathsci.com
Some Considerations in Favor of the Truth of Goldbach’sConjecture
C. D’Urso
 LUMSA University, Rome, Italy  Information Systems Development Office, ICT Department, Italian Senate, Rome, Italy 
 Abstract.
This article presents some considerations about the Goldbach’s conjecture (GC). The work is based on analytic results of the number theory and it provides a constructive method that permits,given an even integer, to find at least a pair of prime numbers according to the GC. It will be shownhow the method can be implemented by an algorithm coded in a high-level language for numericalcomputation. Eventually a correlation will be provided between this constructive method and a classof problems of operations research.
2010 Mathematics Subject Classifications
: 11P32, 90B99
Key Words and Phrases
: Goldbach’s Conjecture, Congruencies, Chinese remainder theorem, Opera-tions research, Convex feasibility problem, Knapsack problem, Constraint satisfaction problem, Primal-ity test
1. Introduction
In his famous letter to Leonhard Euler dated 7 June 1742
[
11
]
, Christian Goldbach statedhis famous conjecture that every integer greater than 2 can be written as the sum of threeprimes, statement that is equivalent to that every even number is a sum of two primes, asEuler stated in the letter dated 30 June 1742 (“I regard this as a completely certain theorem,although I cannot prove it”). This strong Goldbach conjecture implies the conjecture that allodd numbers greater than 7 are the sum of three odd primes, which is known today variously as the "weak" Goldbach conjecture, the "odd" Goldbach conjecture, or the "ternary" Goldbachconjecture.In 1923 the ternary conjecture has been proved under the assumption of the truth of thegeneralized Riemann hypothesis
[
13
]
, in 1937 Vinogradov 
[
20
]
removed the dependence onthe Riemann Hypothesis, and proved that this it true for all sufficiently large odd integers.In 1956 Borodzkin showed that an integer greater than a large integer is sufficient in Vino-gradov’s proof. In 1989 and 1996 Chen and Wang reduced this bound
[
6
]
. Using Vinogradov’s
 Email address:
cirodurso@ieee.org
http:
//
 www.ejmathsci.com 152 c
2013 EJMATHSCI All rights reserved.
 
C. D’Urso
/
Eur. J. Math. Sci.,
2
(2013), 152-167 153
method, Chudakov, van der Corput, and Estermann
[
7, 19, 8
]
showed that almost all evennumbers can be written as the sum of two primes (in the sense that the fraction of evennumbers which can be so written tends towards 1). In a very recent paper, mathematicianTerence Tao of the University of California, Los Angeles, has inched toward a proof, in fact hehas shown that one can write odd numbers as sums of, at most, five primes
[
18
]
. Althoughbelieved to be true, the binary Goldbach conjecture is still lacking a proof. We state it asfollows.
Statement 1.
Every even integer greater than 4 can be written as the sum of two primes.
2. Alternative Statements of the Problem
Consider an even natural number 2
e
, we can state the conjecture in term of the naturalnumber
e
as follows.
Statement 2.
For every integer e
>
3
there exists a couple of odd prime numbers q
1
and q
2
suchthat e is their semi-sum, that is: e
=
q
1
+
q
2
2
.
This statement is equivalent to the original one considering that 2
e
, with
e
a genericinteger, is always an even natural, and that the original statement is trivially verified for thenumbers 4 and 6.
Definition 1.
Two prime numbers q
1
and q
2
 , with q
2
>
e
>
q
1
 , are called mirror primes respectto an integer e if there exists an integer d such that: e
q
1
=
q
2
e
=
d.
So another equivalent statement to 2, and of course to 1, is:
Statement 3.
For every natural e
>
3
there exists a pair of mirror primes respect to e.
In the following we will consider, without loss of generality,
e
>
7. The statement 3, leadsus to analyze when, given a natural number
e
, there exists at least one integer
d
defining twomirror primes respect to
e
. First of all we have to ask if and when there exist such number
d
(if 
e
is prime the choice is trivially 
d
=
0). Moreover we are interested in an integer such thatthe two integers
e
±
d
are primes (observe that the primality can be checked by means of anefficient algorithm currently available
[
2
]
).
3. Notation
Let observe that in the following we use that notation:With the symbol
π
(
 x 
)
we denote the number of primes less than or equal to
.With the expression
a
b
(
mod c
)
we state that
a
is congruent to
b
modulo
c
.With the expression
a
b
(
mod c
)
we state that
a
is not congruent to
b
modulo
c
.With the expression
(
n
,
m
]
we indicate the interval open on left and close on right.With the expression
a
 
b
we denote that
a
doesn’t divide
b
.With the expression
|{
a
i
}|
 we denote the cardinality of the set of elements
{
a
i
}
.In some passages the symbol
[
 x 
]
indicates the greatest integer less then or equal to
, butin general the square brackets are used to group symbols in an expression.
 
C. D’Urso
/
Eur. J. Math. Sci.,
2
(2013), 152-167 154
4. Plan of the Work 
The aim of the article is to calculate the number
d
such that the two integers
e
±
d
wereprimes. We observe that if the number
d
is such that it satisfies the
π
(
 
2
e
)
relations
d not
≡ ±
e
mod p
i
this fact alone represents a sufficient condition for the desired result.Therefore the results provided in the following sections can be summarized by these twological steps:1. Given an even natural number 2
e
it will be provided a method in order to calculate aninteger
d
such that
e
±
d not
0
(
mod p
i
)
where
p
i
are the
π
(
 
2
e
)
primes less thanor equal to
 
2
e
. This assure that the two integers
e
±
d
are prime numbers. This stepdepends on the choice of a set of positive integers
b
i
and on the choice of their signs(
+/
-).2. It will be provided a method in order to calculate at least one set of integer
b
i
suchthat
b
i
not
±
e
(
mod p
i
)
, and considering that
d
b
i
(
mod p
i
)
the consequence is that
d not
±
e
mod p
i
. This step, in combination with the step 1, allow us to obtain thenumber
d
greater than
e
and less than
e
. Consequently we obtain a pair of mirrorprimes respect to
e
, that is:
(
e
d
) + (
e
+
d
) =
2
e
.
5. The Chinese Remainder Theorem and the Number
d
 About the existence of prime numbers in the intervals definened by the number
e
, that is:
(
0,
e
)
and
(
e
,2
e
)
, the following result holds.
Lemma 1.
Given an arbitrary integer e
>
7
there is at least one prime number in the intervals
(
0,
e
)
and
(
e
,2
e
2
)
. Proof.
In the first interval we have trivially at least the first two primes. Regarding thesecond interval, actually it is the Bertrand’s postulate, also called the Bertrand-Chebyshev theorem or Chebyshev’s theorem: it states that if 
e
>
3, there is always at least one prime
p
between
e
and 2
e
2
[
5
]
.Furthermore we can ask if there are particular relations among
q
1
,
q
2
,
e
,
andd
. We caneasily observe that the mirror primes can not be prime factors neither of the natural number2
e
nor of 
d
. We summarize those remarks in the following Lemma.
Lemma 2.
Given e, even integer number, for all pairs of mirror primes respect to e it holds:
(
a
)
q
1
 
e;
(
b
)
q
2
 
2
e;
(
c
)
q
1
 
d. Proof.
We prove
(
a
)
by reductio ad absurdum. We have:
q
2
=
2
e
q
1
, and if 
q
1
|
e
then
q
1
|
q
2
, but
q
2
is prime and so it is impossible. The statement
(
b
)
follows from the identity 
q
1
=
2
e
q
2
and from the fact that
q
1
is by hypothesis prime. Similarly the third statementfollows from observing that
q
2
=
q
1
+
2
d
.Remembering that a prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positivedivisors other than 1 and itself, it is easily to infer that every composit number
n
has a prime

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