C. D’Urso
/
Eur. J. Math. Sci.,
2
(2013), 152-167 153
method, Chudakov, van der Corput, and Estermann
[
7, 19, 8
]
showed that almost all evennumbers can be written as the sum of two primes (in the sense that the fraction of evennumbers which can be so written tends towards 1). In a very recent paper, mathematicianTerence Tao of the University of California, Los Angeles, has inched toward a proof, in fact hehas shown that one can write odd numbers as sums of, at most, ﬁve primes
[
18
]
. Althoughbelieved to be true, the binary Goldbach conjecture is still lacking a proof. We state it asfollows.
Statement 1.
Every even integer greater than 4 can be written as the sum of two primes.
2. Alternative Statements of the Problem
Consider an even natural number 2
e
, we can state the conjecture in term of the naturalnumber
e
as follows.
Statement 2.
For every integer e
>
3
there exists a couple of odd prime numbers q
1
and q
2
suchthat e is their semi-sum, that is: e
=
q
1
+
q
2
2
.
This statement is equivalent to the original one considering that 2
e
, with
e
a genericinteger, is always an even natural, and that the original statement is trivially veriﬁed for thenumbers 4 and 6.
Deﬁnition 1.
Two prime numbers q
1
and q
2
, with q
2
>
e
>
q
1
, are called mirror primes respectto an integer e if there exists an integer d such that: e
−
q
1
=
q
2
−
e
=
d.
So another equivalent statement to 2, and of course to 1, is:
Statement 3.
For every natural e
>
3
there exists a pair of mirror primes respect to e.
In the following we will consider, without loss of generality,
e
>
7. The statement 3, leadsus to analyze when, given a natural number
e
, there exists at least one integer
d
deﬁning twomirror primes respect to
e
. First of all we have to ask if and when there exist such number
d
(if
e
is prime the choice is trivially
d
=
0). Moreover we are interested in an integer such thatthe two integers
e
±
d
are primes (observe that the primality can be checked by means of anefﬁcient algorithm currently available
[
2
]
).
3. Notation
Let observe that in the following we use that notation:With the symbol
π
(
x
)
we denote the number of primes less than or equal to
x
.With the expression
a
≡
b
(
mod c
)
we state that
a
is congruent to
b
modulo
c
.With the expression
a
≡
b
(
mod c
)
we state that
a
is not congruent to
b
modulo
c
.With the expression
(
n
,
m
]
we indicate the interval open on left and close on right.With the expression
a
b
we denote that
a
doesn’t divide
b
.With the expression
|{
a
i
}|
we denote the cardinality of the set of elements
{
a
i
}
.In some passages the symbol
[
x
]
indicates the greatest integer less then or equal to
x
, butin general the square brackets are used to group symbols in an expression.