International Journal of Renewable Energy Resources X (20XX) XX-XX
(8-Point type size)
CHANGE OF FACADE PATTERN AND FACADE MATERIAL FOR ENERGYEFFICIENT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS IN THE CLIMATIC CONTEXT OFDHAKA,BANGLADESH
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), BangladeshEmail address: email@example.com
The research focuses the importance of energy efficient buildings in the climatic context of Dhaka to reduce theelectricity consumption through decreased use of air conditioning units in commercial buildings. The focus has been facilitated by the fact that change of building façadematerials and façade patterns can have a significantcontribution in reducing the cooling demand of a building.And the fact has been represented in the research through acomparison on the basis of annual electricity consumptionand annual cooling load demand of four buildingorientations, likely- a typical concrete façade, a single glassfaçade and a totally new concept of building façade inBangladesh named as ‘Double Glass Façade’ including itstwo ventilation techniques as well as relevant theories. As,the trend for glass buildings in Dhaka city is growing day- by-day, the need for electricity and cooling requirements arealso in an increase. The research shows that only shiftingfrom single façade to double façade, 37% of the cooling loadof a twelve storied building may reduce whereas 47% of electricity consumption reduces while using double façadecompared to a typical concrete façade.
Keywords: Energy-efficient; Double facade building;Commercial buildings; Climate of Dhaka1.INTRODUCTION
Dhaka, known as a fast megacity of Asia carries a goodnumbers of buildings that hardly satisfy the requirementof sustainable energy concept. This research focuses thecommercial building sector which uses only 7% of theelectricity but the prime user of air conditioning unitresulting huge electricity consumption and considerableamount of CO2emission. The goal of the research is tomake our architects, engineers and policy makersconcern about the importance of energy efficient buildings as well as introduce a careful and new design process to produce buildings that use substantially lessenergy without compromising occupant comfort or the building’s functionality, changing its material and façade pattern
Keeping the importance of energy efficient buildings in mind, changes and modifications have beensuggested in BNBC 1993(Update version) for use of energy saving appliances and passive energy designfeatures by Bureau of Research Testing and Consultancy(BRTC) from Bangladesh University of Engineering andTechnology (BUET)
and this research can be a guidelinefor our engineers and architects to take a step towards planning and designing sustainable buildings to combatenergy crisis in the country.The research leads to the development of commercial buildings in Bangladesh including,
The study has improved the understanding of acommercial building (case study buildings) inDhaka, including its energy use.
The study has determined the amount of electric energy used for cooling and lighting intypical commercial buildings (concrete façade,single glass and double glass façade) of Dhaka.
The study provides a comparison showingwhich material and façade pattern lead to lessenergy consumption (among the case study buildings) leading a way while designingenergy efficient commercial buildings in future.
2.ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF MATERIALS ANDFACADE
Dhaka hasa tropical climate and most of the commercial buildings in the city are mainly of glass façade now-a-days. Our motive is to find out whether this trend isdecreasing the consumption of electricity, and if not, whatcan be the possible alternatives for less energyconsumption.The energy efficiency of building materials can bemeasured using factors such as R-value, U-value,shading coefficient, depending on type. Buildingenvelops are normally rated for their insulation property.The higher the R-value, the better is the material.Materials having insulation minimize the flow of energythrough the surface of buildings. This includes materialsto reduce both conduction and energy radiation. As it is ameasure of heat loss then the lower the U-value the better it is for building comfort. Concrete has low R-value compared to glass and is not agood insulating material.The lower R-value of concretehas made it less popular as green material as it consumesmore heat compared to glass and other insulatingmaterial. The use of glass facade brings in lot of lightthat helps in giving a high amount of natural day lightinginstead of depending solely on artificial lighting thusreducing considerably electricity consumption. Though,single clear glass facade allows almost 90% or more of the energy to pass through and then traps the resultingheat leading an increase in interior temperature, but useof low emissivity (low-E glass) glass facade has a positive effect as it acts as a radiation mirror, reflectingheat back to the source. This prevents solar heat gain inthe summer while keeps the heat to retain within the building in winter. The trend of using low-E and lower