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International Journal of Renewable Energy Resources X

International Journal of Renewable Energy Resources X

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Published by: Shubhra Deb Paul Joy on Apr 25, 2013
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 International Journal of Renewable Energy Resources X (20XX) XX-XX 
(8-Point type size)
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), BangladeshEmail address: badhon0604131@yahoo.com
The research focuses the importance of energy efficient buildings in the climatic context of Dhaka to reduce theelectricity consumption through decreased use of aiconditioning units in commercial buildings. The focus has been facilitated by the fact that change of building façadematerials and façade patterns can have a significantcontribution in reducing the cooling demand of a building.And the fact has been represented in the research through acomparison on the basis of annual electricity consumptionand annual cooling load demand of four buildingorientations, likely- a typical concrete façade, a single glassfaçade and a totally new concept of building façade inBangladesh named as ‘Double Glass Façade’ including itstwo ventilation techniques as well as relevant theories. As,the trend for glass buildings in Dhaka city is growing day- by-day, the need for electricity and cooling requirements arealso in an increase. The research shows that only shiftingfrom single façade to double façade, 37% of the cooling loadof a twelve storied building may reduce whereas 47% of electricity consumption reduces while using double façadecompared to a typical concrete façade. 
Keywords: Energy-efficient; Double facade building;Commercial buildings; Climate of Dhaka1.INTRODUCTION
Dhaka, known as a fast megacity of Asia carries a goodnumbers of buildings that hardly satisfy the requirementof sustainable energy concept. This research focuses thecommercial building sector which uses only 7% of theelectricity but the prime user of air conditioning unitresulting huge electricity consumption and considerableamount of CO2emission. The goal of the research is tomake our architects, engineers and policy makersconcern about the importance of energy efficient buildings as well as introduce a careful and new design process to produce buildings that use substantially lessenergy without compromising occupant comfort or the building’s functionality, changing its material and façade pattern
Keeping the importance of energy efficient buildings in mind, changes and modifications have beensuggested in BNBC 1993(Update version) for use of energy saving appliances and passive energy designfeatures by Bureau of Research Testing and Consultancy(BRTC) from Bangladesh University of Engineering andTechnology (BUET)
and this research can be a guidelinefor our engineers and architects to take a step towards planning and designing sustainable buildings to combatenergy crisis in the country.The research leads to the development of commercial buildings in Bangladesh including,
The study has improved the understanding of acommercial building (case study buildings) inDhaka, including its energy use.
The study has determined the amount of electric energy used for cooling and lighting intypical commercial buildings (concrete façade,single glass and double glass façade) of Dhaka.
The study provides a comparison showingwhich material and façade pattern lead to lessenergy consumption (among the case study buildings) leading a way while designingenergy efficient commercial buildings in future.
Dhaka hasa tropical climate and most of the commercial buildings in the city are mainly of glass façade now-a-days. Our motive is to find out whether this trend isdecreasing the consumption of electricity, and if not, whatcan be the possible alternatives for less energyconsumption.The energy efficiency of building materials can bemeasured using factors such as R-value, U-value,shading coefficient, depending on type. Buildingenvelops are normally rated for their insulation property.The higher the R-value, the better is the material.Materials having insulation minimize the flow of energythrough the surface of buildings. This includes materialsto reduce both conduction and energy radiation. As it is ameasure of heat loss then the lower the U-value the better it is for building comfort. Concrete has low R-value compared to glass and is not agood insulating material.The lower R-value of concretehas made it less popular as green material as it consumesmore heat compared to glass and other insulatingmaterial. The use of glass facade brings in lot of lightthat helps in giving a high amount of natural day lightinginstead of depending solely on artificial lighting thusreducing considerably electricity consumption. Though,single clear glass facade allows almost 90% or more of the energy to pass through and then traps the resultingheat leading an increase in interior temperature, but useof low emissivity (low-E glass) glass facade has a positive effect as it acts as a radiation mirror, reflectingheat back to the source. This prevents solar heat gain inthe summer while keeps the heat to retain within the building in winter. The trend of using low-E and lower 
SHGC (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient) glass in Dhaka isstill in initial stage.In climatic conditions like Bangladesh, 80% of the totalheat gain is due to direct solar radiation and the rest isdue to temperature difference between the exteriors andinteriors. Thus to reduce the overall Relative Heat Gain(RHG) in tropical climates, it becomes necessary tocurtail the incoming solar radiation by the use of doubleglazing. Double glazing is good because of the presenceof air gap between the two panes of glasses that blocksthe transfer of heat, acting as a good insulator, either naturally or by forced ventilation. The most importantcriteria is the reduction of cooling demand in summer and the reduction of heating demand in winter, that hasmade it popular worldwide.
Basically, three hypothetical model buildings wereanalyzed for the studychanging their facade material andfacade pattern as well as using weather data of Dhakacity.The first model is a twelve storied building with 8 inthickness external wall of heavyweight concrete withfull air conditioning units. The second model is thesimilar building, with full single glazed façade system(minimum R value) without changing any other internalconfiguration of the building. And the third one is doubleglazed facade (maximum R value) system with fullventilation effect. External
at absorption glazed layer was added 1 m from inner façade. Energy Plus, a building energy simulation software has been used in thisstudy to investigate the impacts of façade and materialchange in energy consumption. Mainly, electricityconsumption of these three types of building wasdetermined and a comparison was found depending ontheir cooling loads.
The lighting requirements, electricity consumption andcooling load requirement of four facade orientations, gotfrom simulation results are given below:
4.1Annual Energy Consumption for four buildingtypes
The key finding from this result is (Table 1), The annualelectricity demand column shows that the electricityconsumption is highest for a façade made of concrete,while the demand has been significantly reduced in caseof double facade buildings with natural ventilation aswell as w
natural and forced ventilation.
The coolingload column shows that cooling load requirement ishighest for single façade building which represents anexception from the electricity consumption plot as well asthe lighting requirement of the model buildings showsthat it is highest in a typical concrete façade buildingcompared to glass buildings as glass buildings don’t needto use lights in the day time as they allow the access of natural sunlight to the interior, reducing both electricityconsumption and dependence on artificial lightingTable 1. Electricity Consumption, Cooling Load andLighting RequirementEnergy Consumption(Kilowatt-hour)BuildingOrientationElectricityDemand(Light, cooling &others)CoolingLoadRequirementLightingRequirementBuildingwith 8inconcrete1295059883469401468SingleFacade880000100744044000DoubleFacade(naturalventilation)68800064484444000DoubleFacade(natural +forcedventilation)59910050788644000
4.1Result Interpretation
After comparing the plots of Figure1 & Figure2
we found the single façade building havinghighest cooling loads but less consumption of electricity in comparison with the concretefaçade. It was unexpected as it is obvious thathigh cooling demand will lead to an increase inelectricity consumption. But the reason behindthis is the use of glass façade that allowsdaylight to reach the interiors of buildings,reducing the need for artificial light. AsBangladesh is a tropical climate, we haveabundant sunlight and the less use of artificiallighting in case of a glass building mainly leadsto the decreased use of electricity consumption.Fig. 1 Annual Electricity Consumption for four buildingscenariosIn our study, approximately 31% of electricityhas been used in the lighting requirement
(Figure3) of the concrete façade building wherethe single glass façade building’s lightingfacilities need only 5% of the total electricity.Again in case of double façade building, thoughthe lighting requirement remain the same but asthe total electricity consumption has beenreduced, so percentage of lighting has beenreduced.It can be seen that the cooling load has beendrastically reduced in double facade buildingfrom the Figure 2. This can be attributed to twofactors. One is high reduction of solar heat gainsand the other one is the ventilation of the facadeto extract heat and cool down the internalsurface temperature.Fig.2 Annual Cooling Loads summaries for four  building scenariosHowever, it is interesting to see that there is notmuch difference in energy consumption(Figure1) between double façade with naturalventilation and double façade with forcedventilation. There is a small cooling loadreduction (about 11.41 MW/hr) with thecombined aid of mechanical and naturalventilation from which it seems that ventilationhas not very much impact on the decrease of cooling load.Fig.2 Annual Lighting Requirements for four  building scenariosThe reason behind the negligible energy savingin forced ventilated façade compared to naturalventilation may be its installation andmaintenance process.
The cooling load results satisfy the basic principles of insulation defined by the R-value.An energy-efficient facade has much higher insulation R-values than required by most local building codes. It has already been said that inour study single pan glass has the minimum anddouble pan glass has the maximum R-valuewhich defines that single façade building willhave the maximum and double façade will havethe minimum cooling load.
One of the objectives of our study was toinvestigate whether double façade buildingrepresents a valid approach to energy efficientand environmentally responsive design or not.And the result shows that the natural ventilationof double façade building has a positive impactover mechanical means of air conditioning byreducing the energy consumption of buildings.Figure1
shows, use of double façade withnatural ventilation has decreased the electricityconsumption to about 47% in comparison withthe concrete façade building where Figure2shows, cooling load has been reduced to 37%compared to single façade building.
The study has identified the following conclusions for making commercial buildings energy efficient in Dhaka.
Use of high performance glass that possesseshigh R-value, in single façade building.
Incorporating Double Façade Building patternin Dhaka for commercial zones to reduce thecooling load and electricity consumption thatwill solve the load shedding problem of thecountry to a great extent.
Concrete is a high insulating material than clear glass and it can contribute in reducing coolingload, but not the total electricity demand.
[1] ASHRAE Handbook: ASHRAE _2005_HOF materials. AmericanSociety of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers,Atlanta, GA,1993[2] ASHRAE 90.1 Prescriptive Wall Insulation Requirements[3] BBS. 2008. Statistical Pocket Book of Bangladesh2007.Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics Planning Division: Ministry of Planning[4] Belgian Building Research Institute (BBRI).
Source book for abetter understanding of conceptual and operational aspects of active facades
.(2002) Department of Building Physics, Indoor Climate andBuilding Services, Belgian Building Research Institute. Version no 1.Web address: http://www.bbri.be/activefacades/index2.htm[5] A. Boake,T., & Bohren, Case Study Two - Print Media Academy(94009885).2001. University of Waterloo, School of Architecture. Webaddress:http://www.fes.uwaterloo.ca/architecture/faculty_projects/terri/ds/PMA.pdf 

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