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Proposal Evaluation --MT in EFL Class

Proposal Evaluation --MT in EFL Class

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This file is intended as a handout for ELT Research Proposal Critique in my ELT Research classes at the English Teaching Study Program of UKI Jakarta.
This file is intended as a handout for ELT Research Proposal Critique in my ELT Research classes at the English Teaching Study Program of UKI Jakarta.

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Parlindungan Pardede on Apr 25, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Research Proposal Evaluation o
Use of MT in EFL Classes of SecondarySchools in Jadetabek: Students and Teachers’ Perception
Chapter IINTRODUCTIONA. Background
In the field of second language (SL) and foreign language (FL)teaching in general and English as a second language (ESL) or Englishas a foreign language (EFL) teaching in particular,the role of thestudents’ mother tongue (MT) and its influence on the target language(TL) has long been a controversy. Based on his review of the literaturerelated to language teaching methods, Stern (1992, p. 279) stated thatthe role of MT in SL teaching is “one of the most long-standingcontroversies in the history of language pedagogy”. One the one hand,those supporting the prohibition of MT use in SL/FL classrooms, laterbecomes popular as the monolingual approach, suggest that the targetlanguage should be the only medium of communication, becauseSL/FL is best learned and taught through the language itself (Richardsand Rodgers 2001). For them, the avoidance of the MT wouldmaximize the effectiveness of learning the TL, because maximumexposure to TL and least exposure to MT are of crucial importance,and the use of MT may obstruct TL learning process (Cook, 2001 andKrashen, 1981).On the other hand, the advocates of MT use believe MT can behelpful in most classroom activities, such as learning new vocabularyitems, explaining complex ideas, studying grammatical rules, orstudying cultural elements. They assert that the monolingual approachseems to be only partially implemented in SL/FL teaching practice,and, as a matter of fact, most ESL/EFL teachers and students oftenresort to MT during the learning and teaching process. Nation (2003)and Larsen-Freeman (2012), for instances, argued that students’ MTshould not completely eliminated from a SL or FL classes andreiterated that a judicious and wellplanned use of the studentsMTcan give positive results.Despite the continuous debates over the role of MT, empiricalstudies during the last three decades have suggested that it is likely tobe unavoidable in SL/FL classrooms, especially when students speakthe same MT and when teachers know the MT of their students.Auerbach (1993) for example, lists several different positive uses of L1 in L2 classrooms, i.e. classroom management, language analysis,presenting grammar rules, discussing cross-cultural issues, givinginstructions or prompts, explaining errors, and checking forcomprehension. Macaro’s (2001) study on six student teachers inEngland revealed that the participants use their MT up to 15.2% intheir teaching. Based on their study on 13 Korean teachers of Englishin high schools,Liu et al (2004)reportedtheir usof Korean ranged
The start statingthe “controversy” isvery effective toattract reader’sintentionCitations used toprove the“controversy” werevery well selectedThis presentationof the results of recent researchconducted invarious places iseffective to showthe importance of understanding theMT use in EFLclasses
from 10% to 90% of class time. Kim and Elder’s (2005) study onseven teachers who taught foreign languages in New Zealand revealedthat the proportion of target language use among these teachers variedfrom 23% to 88%.Kim Anh (2010) study on the attitudes of Vietnameseuniversity teachers towards using Vietnamese in teaching Englishindicated that judicious use of MT is found to be necessary in somesituations in teaching English. In addition, Al-Nofaies (2010) studyshowed that the students and teachers’ attitudes towards using theArabic in EFL classroom were positive and the students preferred MTto be used in certain situations. However, the teacher participantsclaimed that the untimely and excessive use of MT should be avoidedbecause it may obstruct learning English. In the Chinese context, Tang’s (2002). study revealed that students supported the use oChinese in English classes because it makes English learning moreeffective and less time-consuming. Thoughresearches on the use of MT in FL classrooms haveincreased dramatically in many places in the world, in Indonesianpublic schools, very little attention has given specifically to this issueand only few studies have been carried out to investigate the role of Indonesia in English classes. To the present writers’ knowledge, thereare only two accessible studies carried out concerning this issue inIndonesian context so far. Zacharias(2003) study revealed tertiaryeducation English teachers’ account about what Indonesian is used forin their English classes: explaining the meaning of new words andgrammatical points, giving instructions, checking learners’understanding and giving feedback to individual learners. The secondwork, Usadiatis (2009) action research, revealed that the use of Indonesian interchangeably with English in the explanations of concepts and rules for teaching students to write English sentences inPresent Perfect Tense improved the students’ achievement.Since English has recently been taught in all levels oeducation, such lack of attention to the use of Indonesian in Englishclassrooms a great disadvantage. Since both teachers and studentshave the same MT (most English teachers in the public school areIndonesians) they must be apt to resort to Indonesian as a support tosurvive or to make sense of whatever is going on in the English class.If only we have appropriate empirical data on this issue, we will beable to raise our awareness of where we are at present in our use of Indonesian in English classes and to prepare the ground for a morereasoned use of Indonesian in the English classroom. And this study isa trial to provide such necessitated data.
B. Research Problems
Based on the discussion in the background section above, theuse of Indonesian appears, in some ways, to be beneficial for learningand teaching English. It has also been learned that little attention hasbeen given to the use of Indonesian in English classes. There is,therefore, a great urgency to study this issue. By having appropriate
The little attentionin Indonesiatowards the issueis effective to showthe “gaps” betweencurrent practice of English teachingandmethodologicalknowledge on it.Thus it is urgent toconduct thisresearchThe background isvery relevant to theproblems.
empirical data concerning this issue, we will have more solid basis todecide what methodology is best for our students. The problem to beaddressed in this study is students and English teachers’ perceptiontowards the use of Indonesian in English classrooms at senior highschools around Jadetabek. More specifically, the study tries to seekanswers to the following questions.1.What is the perception of teachers and students towards usingIndonesian in their English classroom?2.To what extent do English teachers and students believe in the roleof the Indonesian?3.How much Indonesian do teachers use in their English classroom?4.How much Indonesian do students expect their teachers use intheir English class?5.How much Indonesian do students want to use themselves?6.What for do students and teachers employ Indonesian?7.What is the relationship between years of English teachingexperience and teachers' use of Indonesian?8.What is the relationship between years of English learning andstudents' expectation in the use of Indonesian?
C. Research Objectives
Based on the discussions on the previous sections, this studywill be carried out to get empirical data about:1.English teachers and students’ perception on the use of Indonesianin English classroom.2.the extent of English teachers and students’ belief in the role of theIndonesian in English classroom.3.the frequency of teachers use of Indonesian in English classroom.4.Students’ expectation of the frequency of teachers’ use of Indonesian in their English classes.5.Students’ expectation of the frequency of their use of Indonesianin their English classes.6.The students and teachers objectives for employing Indonesian.7.The relationship between years of English teaching experience andteachers' use of Indonesian.8.The relationship between years of English learning and students'expectation in the use of Indonesian.
D. Significances of the study
 The findings of this study are hopefully useful to the followingfour groups:1.English teachers can make use of the findings and become awareof the role Indonesian plays in teaching and learning English.2.Teacher educators-could make use of the findings to reexaminetheir foreign language teaching methodology at the teachertraining and development centers.3.Material writers and syllabus designers-may make them toconsider Indonesian while preparing teaching materials ordesigning the syllabus.
These specificresearch questionsare clearly statedand relevant to theresearch topic--Students andEnglish teachers’perception towardsthe use of Indonesian inEnglishClassrooms.the objective s areclearly stated andconsistent with theresearch questionsThis part clearlytells how the studywould be beneficialto specific persons

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