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Prospects of Effective Microorganisms Technology in Wastes Treatment in Eygept

Prospects of Effective Microorganisms Technology in Wastes Treatment in Eygept

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Published by Anand Barapatre
Waste water treatment through Microbes
Waste water treatment through Microbes

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Published by: Anand Barapatre on Apr 25, 2013
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243
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)243-248
Document heading
Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment inEgypt
Emad A Shalaby
*
 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, 12613
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
 journal homepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/apjtb
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
 Article history:
R
eceived
15
 
J
anuary
2011
R
eceived in revised form
18
 
F
ebruary
2011
A
ccepted
10
 
M
arch
2011
A
vailable online
30
 
M
arch
2011
 Keywords:
Effective microorganismsWastes treatmentEgyptSludge dewateringWastewater PollutantOrganic matter DecompositionBacteriaContamination
 
*Corresponding author: Dr. Emad Shalaby, Ph.D Biochemistry, BiochemistryDepartment, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.Tel: +2 010 120 3313Fax: +2 3774 2600E-mail: dremad2009@yahoo.com, emad2e0m0a1d@yahoo.comFoundation Project: Supported by a grant from Sanko Company for EM Productionand its products; and by a grant from JICA Agency, OIC, Okinawa, Japan.
1. Introduction
 
E
nvironmental management, wastes recycling, treatmentand disposal, pollution control and prevention andwastewater reuse became the most important issues and inthe top of the global agenda
[1]
.
W
aste water usually can beprocessed for disposal or recycling by one or more steps.
T
he first step, usually, is the preliminary and primarytreatment, which is physico-chemical treatment.
B
ecauseof the objection properties of the effluent, the secondarytreatment, which is biological treatment, is employed.
T
heoperation involves the biological degradation of organics,both dissolved or suspended materials by microorganismsunder controlled conditions.
B
iological treatment canbe accomplished in a number of ways, but the basiccharacteristic of the system is the use of mixed microbialculture: bacteria, fungi and / or algae, for the conversion of pollutants.
I
n most cases, organic materials are converted tooxidized products, mostly carbon dioxide and new microbialcells
(
the sludge
)
.
T
he organic materials serve as an energyand carbon sources for cell growth
[2]
. 
A
major problem facing municipalities throughoutthe world is the treatment, disposal and/or recycling of sewage sludge.
G
enerally, sludge from municipal wastemainly consists of biodegradable organic materials with asignificant amount of inorganic matter 
[3]
.
H
owever, sludgeexhibits wide variations in the physical, chemical andbiological properties
[4]
.
A
t the present time, there are anumber of methods being used to dispose of sewage sludgefrom disposal to landfill for land application.
A
lthoughthere are many methods used, there are numerous concernsraised regarding the presence of constituents includingheavy metals, pathogens and other toxic substances.
T
hisrequires the selection of the correct disposal methodfocusing on efficient and environmentally safe disposal.
S
ludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment.
U
suallylarge proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic.
T
hey are attacked by saprophyticmicroorganisms,
i.e.
organisms that feed upon dead organic matter.
A
ctivity of organisms causesdecomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products.
D
emolitionactivities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishingof existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensiveamount of wastes.
T
hese demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt.
I
n developing countries,it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise
20
%
to
30
%
of the total annual solid wastes.
I
n
E
gypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition
(
C
&
D
)
waste has been estimated as
10
 
000
 tones.
T
hat is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per dayin
E
gypt.
T
he zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collectback to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics,rags, glass, metal and food.
T
he food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recyclingcenters.
T
his paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in
E
gypt now andfuture.
Contents lists available atScienceDirect
 
 Emad A Shalaby./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)243-248
244
N
ew technologies are being produced to assist in thetreatment and disposal of sewage sludge, conforming to strictenvironmental regulations.
O
ne of these new technologiesbeing proposed is the use of effective microorganisms
(
EM
)
.
T
he technology of 
EM
was developed during the
1970
s atthe
U
niversity of 
R
yukyus,
O
kinawa,
J
apan
[5]
.
S
tudies havesuggested that
EM
may have a number of applications,including agriculture, livestock, gardening and landscaping,composting, bioremediation, cleaning septic tanks, algalcontrol and household uses
[6]
. 
EM
is a mixture of groups of organisms that has a revivingaction on humans, animals, and the natural environment
[7, 8]
 and has also been described as a multi-culture of coexistinganaerobic and aerobic beneficial microorganisms.
T
hemain species involved in
EM
include:
L
actic acid bacteria:
 Lactobacillus plantarum
,
 Lactobacillus casei
,
Streptoccuslactis
;
P
hotosynthetic bacteria:
 Rhodopseudomonas palustrus
,
 Rhodobacter spaeroides
;
Y
easts:
Saccharomycescerevisiae
,
Candida utilis
;
A
ctinomycetes:
Streptomycesalbus
,
Streptomyces griseus.
 
T
he basis for using these
EM
species of microorganisms isthat they contain various organic acids due to the presenceof lactic acid bacteria, which secrete organic acids, enzymes,antioxidants, and metallic chelates
[9,10]
.
T
he creation of anantioxidant environment by
EM
assists in the enhancementof the solid-liquid separation, which is the foundation for cleaning water 
[7]
.
O
ne of the major benefits of the use of 
EM
is the reduction in sludge volume.
T
heoretically, thebeneficial organisms present in
EM
should decompose theorganic matter by converting it to carbon dioxide
(
CO
2
)
,methane
(
CH
4
)
or use it for growth and reproduction.
S
tudieshave suggested that this is the case for both wastewater treatment plants and also septic tanks.
F
reitag
[11]
suggeststhat introducing
EM
into the anaerobic treatment facilitieshelp to reduce the unpleasant by-products of thisdecomposition and also reduce the production of residualsludge.
T
hese factors tend to suggest that theoretically
EM
 should assist in the treatment of wastewater by improvingthe quality of water discharged and reducing the volume of sewage sludge produced. 
EM
is eco-friendly, safe and organic.
T
he
EM
fermentedgarbage is supplemented with useful microorganisms whichmakes the compost imminently suitable for agriculturaluse.
EM
is effective in all conditions.
T
he turning processrequires
20
to
22
days with higher 
C
:
N
ratio due to presenceof microbes.
J
ust spraying on garbage heap is sufficient.
W
ith easy application,
EM
is safe for human health.
I
t cantreat the leachate coming out form the garbage as well, andremove the foul smell form decomposed garbage.
M
enaceof flies and mosquitoes is suppressed to the minimal byapplication of this technology.
EM
technology is not onlyenvironmental friendly but goes a step further to actuallyprotect the environment.
I
t suppresses harmful gasesgenerated form garbage, as per the
P
ollution
C
ontrol
B
oard
(
PCB
)
norms.
I
t is very economical.
EM
provides healthyenvironment to the workers.
A
ll these mean lower cost of operations, easy application and at the same time protectionof the environment
[7]
.
2. Wastes management in Egypt
 
T
he sludge disposed during the various water treatmentprocesses can be a major concern for water treatment plants.
M
ost of the water treatment plants in
E
gypt discharges thesludge into the river 
N
ile without treatment.
T
he dischargingof sludge into water body leads to accumulative rise of aluminum concentrations in water, aquatic organisms, andhuman bodies.
S
ome researchers have linked aluminum
scontributory influence to occurrence of 
A
lzheimer 
s,children mental retardation, and the common effects of heavy metals accumulation
[12]
.
C
onsequently, stringentstandards of effluent discharge are coming into effect, andthus proper management of the sludge becomes inevitable.
T
he use of water treatment sludge in various industrial andcommercial manufacturing processes has been reported in
UK
,
USA
,
T
aiwan and other parts of the world.
S
uccessfulpilot and full-scale trials have been undertaken in brickmanufacture, cement manufacture, commerciallandapplication.
T
he mineralogical composition of the
water treatment sludge
is particularly close to that of clay andshale.
T
his fact encourages the use of water treatment sludgein brick manufacture.
S
everal trials have been reported inthis purpose.
R
esearch carried out in the
UK
assessed thepotential of incorporating aluminum and ferric coagulantsludge in various manufacturing processes including claybrick making.
A
mixture consists of about
10
percent of thewater treatment sludge and sewage sludge, incinerated ashwas added to about
90
percent of natural clay to producethe brick
[3]
.
I
t is also investigated the incorporating of twowaste materials in brick manufacturing.
T
he study usedwaterworks sludge and the incinerated sewage sludge ashas partial replacements for traditional brick-making rawmaterials at a
5
%
replacement level. 
A
bout
60
 
000
 
000
tones of hazardous waste are producedannually in
E
gypt, with adverse consequences for theenvironment and human health.
N
o infrastructure capableof proper disposal exists in
E
gypt.
F
or example, there is onlyone disposal site for storage of hazardous industrial wastes,and dangerous wastes are generally deposited together withnon-hazardous wastes.
T
he
E
gyptian legal framework for hazardous wastes and waste management shows a few weakpoints.
T
he present regulations, those of environmental lawno.
4
 /
94
, are not properly enforced.
2.1.Wastewater treatment in Egypt
 
I
n
E
gypt, the domestic wastewater in the rural areas isconcentrated with a chemical oxygen demand
(
COD
)
ashigh as
1
 
100
mg/
L
, which is almost two times of that in
 
 Emad A Shalaby./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)243-248
245
the urban areas
[13]
.
E
l-sherbiney
et al
[14]
determined themaximum aerobic biodegradability of the
E
gyptian domesticwastewater.
T
hey found that the minimum aerobic effluent
COD
concentration of rural areas was almost similar to the
E
gyptian effluent standards for 
COD
, while the minimumaerobic effluent
COD
concentration of urban areas wassignificantly lower than that of the
E
gyptian effluentstandards for 
COD
.
I
brahim
[15]
evaluated the applieddifferent technologies for domestic wastewater treatment inrural areas of 
E
gypt.
H
e also found that the effluent of thesesystems did not comply with
E
gyptian effluent standards for 
COD
. 
P
roblems of contamination resulting from organo-phosphorus
(
OP
s
)
and wastewater from pesticide factoriesin
E
gypt have become obvious.
T
hese pesticides arehighly toxic to fish and other aquatic invertebrates.
I
n theenvironment, pesticides are exposed to various degradativeforces.
B
iotic degradation, or metabolic processes, isknown to play a vital role in this respect.
T
hey contributenot only
to the disappearance of the original pesticides,but also change their physicochemical properties, andthus affect their transport and distribution behavior amongvarious compartments in the environments.
D
imethoateone of this major group that has an insecticidal efficiencyfor killing a wide range of insects, including aphids, thrips,planthoppers and whiteflies systemically and on contact [
16
].
 
T
his compound acts by interfering with the activities of cholinesterase
(
an essential enzyme for the proper workingof the nervous systems of both humans and insects and ispossibly carcinogenic
)
.
B
ecause dimethoate is highly solublein water and it adsorbs only very weakly to soil particles.
T
herefore, it is neither expected to adsorb to sedimentsor suspended particles, nor to bioaccumulate in aquaticorganisms.
M
oreover, it undergoes rapid degradation in theenvironment and in sewage treatment plants.
I
t is subjectto significant hydrolysis, especially in alkaline waters.
B
eing carbamate group of organophosphate, dimethoate islittle less amenable to degradation as compared to other well studied organophosphates.
T
he p
H
, temperatureand the type of medium are important factors affectingthe stability of dimethoate in water.
T
he degradation of dimethoate depended mainly on the alkylation of themedium rather than the time of storage.
D
ifferent pathwaysof 
OP
s decomposition such as hydrolysis, photolyticoxidation, microbial transformations and other biologicalprocesses have been reported
[17]
.
T
he earlier metabolicstudies on pesticides helped to develop a new approachto the detoxification of pesticides using cell-free enzymesfrom adapted microorganisms to resolve problems relatedto whole-cell metabolism of pesticides
[18]
.
T
he first reporton bacterial utilization of dimethoate was reported by
L
iu
et al
[18]
.
T
hey isolated a strain of 
 Pseudomonas stutzeri
fromwater that was obtained in fields with frequent applicationof 
OP
s.
71
.
82
%
degradation was reported at
350
 
withshaking for 
72
hrs.
T
hus, microbial degradation by fungiand or bacteria is the means of disappearance of dimethoatefrom water as it is used as source of 
C
and
energy
or source of 
P
.
T
he interest in the concept of 
EM
began tointroduce this
EM
technology that was developed by
H
iga&
C
hinen
[7]
at the
U
niversity of 
R
yukyus,
O
kinawa,
J
apan.
T
his technology includes three principal types of organismscommonly found in all ecosystems, namely acid bacteria,yeast, lactic actinomyces, photosynthetic bacteria andother microoganisms as yeast fungi and algae.
T
hus, thisis the first manuscript that deals with such technology andit may be possible to make the best use of its advantage toremediate
OP
s from water.
M
oreover,
A
bdel-
M
egeed and
E
l-
N
akieb
[19]
evaluates the efficiency of 
EM
on the degradationof dimethoate from contaminated water 
F
igure
1
andsuggests their role in the bioremediation of other pesticidescontaminated water.
   D
   i  m  e   t   h  o  a   t  c   d  e  g  r  a   d  a   t   i  o
   (
  m  g   /
   L
   )
0204060801001200
 
10
 
20
 
30
 
40
 
50
 
60
 
70
 
80
 
90
 
1001
.
210
.
80
.
60
.
40
.
20
D
egradation time
(
hrs
)
-
-
D
ime thoate concentration
(
ppm
)
, - -
O
.
D
.
550
(
nm
)
擲     
Figure 1.
G
rowth of the
EM
in dimethoatc as a sole of carbon andenergy source.
 
T
he industrial wastewater 
(
WW
)
of potato-chips factoryin
E
gypt is characterized by its high biological oxygendemand
(
BOD
)
and
COD
, in addition to a medium contentof oil & grease
(
O
&
G
)
, total dissolved slats
(
TDS
)
and totalsuspended solids
(
TSS
)
.
A
new technique for wastewater treatment has been applied using bio-mixture of selectedstrains of 
 Aspergillus terreus
 
(
 A. terreus
)
or 
 Rhizopus sexualis
 
(
 R. sexualis
)
in addition to the natural flora of sawdust
(
SD
-
B
iomix
)
in the form of mobile micro-carrier in activated sludge system.
D
ifferent kinds of compostedsawdust were used as a microbial carrier, support andsource of nutrients and enzymes to enhance the wastewater treatment process, and to improve the quality of treatedwastewater and resulting sludge.
T
he parameters of treatedwastewater in terms of 
BOD
,
COD
,
O
&
G
,
TDS
and
TSS
 were greatly improved by
85
.
0
%
,
79
.
0
%
,
82
.
7
%
,
74
.
6
%
and
87
.
7
%
respectively, in relation to the retention time andkind of tested materials.
T
he
14
days microbial-treated
(
composted
)
sawdust by
A
. terreus, or 
R
. sexualis as
SD
-
B
iomix exhibited the highest enzymes contents and wasthe most efficient materials for the wastewater treatment

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