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KISS Notes Metals

KISS Notes Metals

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Published by JenniferBackhus
Preliminary chemistry - KISS Notes Metals. Do not own.
Preliminary chemistry - KISS Notes Metals. Do not own.

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Published by: JenniferBackhus on Apr 26, 2013
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keep
 
itsimple
 
science
 ® 
Preliminar
 
y Chemistr
 
y Topic 2 “Metals”Copyright © 2005-2009 keep it simple sciencewww.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copying
 
is
 
permitted
 
according
 
to
 
the
 
Site
 
Licence
 
Conditions
only
1
 
but first, an introduction...
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 2
METALS
What is this topic about? 
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of:1. OUR USE of METALS2. CHEMICALACTIVITYof the METALS3. PATTERNS of the PERIODIC TABLE4. QUANTITYCALCULATIONS... the MOLE5. METALS from their ORES...all in the context of how Chemistry contributes to cultural development
Technology Needs Metals
The great sweep of human cultural developmenthas many aspects... Language, Religion, Art &Music, and, of course, Technology.The history of technology is closely linked withour use of metals; in fact historians have namedsome parts of history after the metals thatchanged the way people lived.
Chemistry of the Metals
In the previous topic you learnt about theElements of the Periodic Table. In this topic youwill concentrate on the chemistry of the metals,and some of the chemical patterns that theyshow.... and Speaking of Patterns,in this topic you will find that
The Periodic Table
is full of patterns
Measuring Chemical Quantities
In this topic you will also be introduced to theconcept of the “Mole”...not a burrowing mammal!not a traitor within the group!not a gangster’s girlfriend!certainly not a skin blemish!AChemical Moleis a clever way to measurequantities; essential for analysis & chemicalmanufacture.This topic starts with a quick look at the historyof metal use, and ends with a study of how weget metals from the Earth, and the chemistry of the extraction process.
Electrically powered smelter plantfor extractingAluminium from its ore
Photo courtesy of Comalco Aluminium Ltd
 
  M e t a  l s
N  M  t  l  
If
 
you
 
know
 
the
 
mass,
 
you
 
can
 
figure
 
out
 
how
 
many
 
atomsthere
 
are...
 
thanks
 
to
 
the
 
mole.
 
Dagger from the “Bronze Age”
 
keep
 
itsimple
 
science
 ® 
Preliminar
 
y Chemistr
 
y Topic 2 “Metals”Copyright © 2005-2009 keep it simple sciencewww.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Copying
 
is
 
permitted
 
according
 
to
 
the
 
Site
 
Licence
 
Conditions
only
2
 
MineralsOres&Resourc
es
MetalsWe UseTodayHistory of Metal UseDefinition of theMole.Avogadro’sNumber Activity & Usageof MetalsElectron Transfer REDOXThe Case for Recycling MetalsCase Study:ExtractingCopper from its OreMole QuantityCalculationsMolar Ratios inReactions
History of thePeriodic Table
1st IonizationEnergyGay-Lussac’s Law&Avogadro’s HypothesisEmpiricalFormulas
The Activity Seriesof the Metals
METALS
Our Use of MetalsChemical Activityof the MetalsPatterns of thePeriodic TableQuantityCalculationsthe MoleExtracting Metalsfrom Ores
CONCEPT DIAGRAM (“Mind Map”) OF TOPIC
Some students find that memorising the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back tothis page regularly to see how each bit fits the whole.At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this “Mind Map” to practise on.
 
3
Copying
 
is
 
permitted
 
according
 
to
 
the
 
Site
 
Licence
 
Conditions
only
1. OUR USE OF METALS
keep
 
itsimple
 
science
 ® 
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 2 “Metals”Copyright © 2005-2009 keep it simple sciencewww.keepitsimplescience.com.au
 
Human Progress has always been linkedto our use of Metals.Progress in metal usage has always beenlinked to the availability of energyto extract the metals.
 
The First Uses of Metals
For most of human existence, people used tools of stone, wood and bone. Primitive tribes were familiar with gold which occurs uncombined in nature, but it istoo soft to be useful for anything but jewellery anddecoration.About 5,000 years ago, in the Middle East, somepeople accidentally discovered that if certain rockswere roasted by fire, small amounts of copper would be found later in the ashes. Copper is toosoft to be really useful, but there was a brief “Copper Age” around the eastern end of theMediterranean Sea. Copper was used for decoration, jewellery, small utensils, andoccasionally for knives and spear points.The big breakthrough was the discovery by thesecopper-using people that if they roasted copper-bearing rocks (ores) with tin ores, the resulting“alloy” (mixture) of copper and tin produced amuch harder metal, “bronze”, which could be castin moulds, and hammered to shape many usefultools and weapons.
The Bronze Age
(approx 4,500 to 2,500 years ago)
It is no accident that the rise of the greatancient civilizations occurred about thistime. The stone blocks of the pyramids andtemples of ancient Egypt were cut and shapedwith bronze chisels. Egyptians, and later Greeks, dominated their world because their soldiers were armed with bronze swords,spears and arrowheads.
With bronze tools they built better ships and wagons for transport and trade, which brought wealth and power.Sad as it might be, thefacts of human historyare that progress hasbeen marked by conflict,war and conquest, andmetals have been a vitalpart of that development.Metal has manyadvantages over stone,wood, or bone:• metal is harder, stronger, and flexible, not brittle.• metal can be cast, hammered or drawn into shapes notpossible in stone, such as saw blades, swords and armour.• when tools become blunt, metal can be re-sharpened.Basically, a warrior with a bronze sword always beats a blokewith a stone axe... we call that progress!
The Iron Age
(approx. 2,500 to 1,500 years ago)
About 1,000 B.C. the extraction of iron from its oreswas discovered. This requires much higher temperatures, and the breakthrough was probably theinvention of the bellows, a device to pump air into afurnace so the wood or charcoal burns hotter.Iron is stronger and harder than bronze. Awarrior armed with iron weapons will usually beat a bronze-armed man. Iron tools and even the humble nailallowed new developments in buildings, ships,wagons... remember that towns, trade and commercegive wealth and power. An iron plough allows moreland to be cultivated to grow more food, to feed abigger army... and so on.It is no accident that the dominant world power of thistime was ancient Rome, because their technologywas based on iron.
From the Medieval to the Modern
After the collapse of the Roman Empire the variouscultures that dominated the “Dark Ages” still had iron-based technologies.The next great technological change was the“Industrial Revolution” which began about 1750 inEngland. This had many aspects, but the big changein technology was the use of coal (instead of wood) for fuel. As well as steam engines, coal allowed for largescale smelting of iron and the invention of steel(analloy of iron with carbon).The engines, tools and machinery of the greatfactories were based on steel. Transport wasrevolutionised by steel locomotives running on steelrails. Steel ships replaced wooden ones, and steelweapons (machine guns,tanks and artillery) achievednew heights (depths?)in warfare and massdestruction.In the 20th century, new metalsand alloys became available... aluminium, titanium,chromium, and many more.This was made possible by electricity
 
, which isneeded in large amounts to extract some metals fromtheir ores, or to purify and process them onceextracted.

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