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KISS Notes Energy

KISS Notes Energy

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Published by JenniferBackhus
Preliminary chemistry - KISS Notes Energy. Do not own.
Preliminary chemistry - KISS Notes Energy. Do not own.

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Published by: JenniferBackhus on Apr 26, 2013
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07/22/2013

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keep
 
itsimple
 
science
 
TM
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
1
but first, an introduction...
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 4
ENERGY
What is this topic about? 
 To keep it as simple as possible,(K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of:
1.HIGH ENERGY COMPOUNDS & FUELS2.CARBON & CARBON COMPOUNDS3.THE CHEMISTRY OF COMBUSTION4.RATE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS
...all in the context ofsocietys use offuels.
Energy
includes heat,light,sound,the kinetic energy ofamoving object,and
Potential Energy
 which is stored in various ways. This topic is all about
Chemical Potential Energy
 which is stored in the chemical bonds within many compounds and released during chemical reactions,especially 
Combustion
 
From the humble match to arocket launch,Combustion isthe chemical reaction thatreleases the energy ofthe
Fuels
upon which our entirecivilization is dependent fortransport,industry,heating &cooking. To understand the Chemistry ofCombustionyou need to learn about the elementand its many and varied compounds. You will learn more about
Exothermic &Endothermic
chemical changes,and then extend your chemicalknowledge to include
Rateof ReactionCarbon
Photo: Russian Soyez lift-off,courtesy Ali Cimen, seniorreporter, Zaman Daily,Istanbul.
   P   h  o   t  o   b  y   A   l  e  x   M   P   h  o   t  o  w  w  w .   b  r  o   k  e  n  -  a  r   t  s .  c  o  m
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 4Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
 
keep
 
itsimple
 
science
 
TM
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 4Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
2
Slow,
 
Fast&ExplosiveCombustions.Safety
 
IssuesOriginofFossil
 
FuelsSignificance
 
ofPhotosynthesisNatural
 
GasPropertiesofAlkanes
 
&
 
AlkenesAlkanes
 
&
 
AlkenesNamesFormulasStructuresTemperature&Kinetic
 
Energyof
 
ParticlesModels
 
ofCatalystActionFactorsthat
 
EffectReaction
 
Rate
 
Temperature
 
Concentration
 
Size
 
of
 
solid
 
particles
 
CatalystsCatalysts&Activation
 
EnergyActivationEnergyThe
 
Combustion
 
ReactionRefiningof
 
PetroleumAllotropesofCarbonSafety
 
IssuesExothermic&EndothermicPollution
 
fromFuel
 
CombustionIncompleteCombustion
The
 
Variety
 
ofPossible
 
CarbonCompounds
ENERGY
High
 
Energy
 
Compounds&FuelsCarbon&Carbon
 
CompoundsChemistryofCombustionate
 
ofChemicalReactions
CONCEPT DIAGRAM (“Mind Map”) OF TOPIC
Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE ofa topic helps them learn and remember the concepts andimportant facts.As you proceed through the topic,come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the whole.At the end ofthe notes you will find a blank version ofthis “Mind Map”to practise on.
Bond
 
Breaking,Bond
 
Making
 
Chemical Potential Energy
is the energy stored within chemical compounds.It isstored in the bonds between the atoms,and every chemicalreaction results in the release,or absorption,ofenergy asbonds are broken and formed.Some bonds store more energy than others.Many ofthecomplex compounds ofcarbon are especially important ashigh-energy compounds.
Photosynthesis
is the process by which plants make food.Photosynthesisis the most important Biological process on Earth,becauseit makes all the FOODand OXYGENfor all living things. This essential process captures the energy ofthe Sun,andstores it in the chemical bonds in the glucose molecule,C
6
H
12
O
6
.Glucose is just one ofmany compounds known as“carbohydrates”...the sugars and starches.All are highenergy compounds made from or derived from glucose, which in turn is made from the low energy compoundscarbon dioxide and water.Plants make their own carbohydrates;animals get theirs by eating their food via the food chains.
 The Origin ofthe “Fossil Fuels”
Coal,Petroleum and Natural Gas are the main fuels whichpower our industries,our homes and vehicles,and generateour electricity. They are all mixtures ofhigh-energy compounds becausethey are the
fossil remnants
oflife-forms which livedmillions ofyears ago.They have been chemically altered by the fossilization process,but are basically derived fromcarbohydrates originally made by photosynthesis. Therefore,whenever coal,petroleum or natural gas areburned as fuels,the energy released is energy which cameoriginally from the Sun and was captured by photosynthesis in some ancient plant cell.
Composition ofNatural Gas
 As an example ofjust which high-energy compounds arepresent in a fossil fuel,the following table summarizes thecomposition of“Natural Gas”which is chemically thesimplest ofthe fossil fuels.(K.I.S.S.Principle!)
Compound FormulaTypical % inNameNatural Gas
Methane
CH
4
90%Ethane
C
2
H
6
5%Propane
C
3
H
8
2%Butane
C
4
H
10
1%Other gases
CO
2
,SO
2
,H
2
2%
Location ofAustralian Deposits ofNatural Gas
Natural Gas,or “Petroleum Gasis usually associated with“Oil Fieldswhere petroleum (crude oil) is found.Themajor Australian deposits are marked on this map:
3
 
Baulkham Hills High School SL#802445
1.HIGH ENERGY COMPOUNDS & FUELS
www.keepitsimplescience.com.au
keep
 
itsimple
 
science
 
TM
Preliminary Chemistry Topic 4Copyright © 2005-2007 keep it simple science
WATER
 
+
 
CARBON
 
GLUCOSE
 
+
 
OXYGENDIOXIDE6H
2
O
 
+
 
6CO
2
C
6
H
12
O
6
+
 
6O
2
chlorophyll
 
North
 
WestShelfOil
 
-f 
ieldBass
 
StraitOil
-f 
ield
Moonie, QLDMoomba, SAMereenie, NT
GlucosemoleculeC
6
H
12
O
6
 
green pigmentin chloroplastsof plant cellsfromsoilfromairhigh-energysugar (food)toair

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