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Table Of Contents

1.1 U.S. Clean Energy Needs
1.2 Future Role of Natural Gas
1.3 The Conventional Natural Gas Resource
1.4 The Coal Resource
1.5 The CBM Resource
1.6Overview: CBM vs. Conventional Reservoir
1.6.1 Gas Composition
1.6.2 Adsorption
1.6.3 Water Production
1.6.4 Gas Flow
1.6.5 Rock Physical Properties
1.6.6 Gas Content
1.6.7 Coal Rank
1.6.8 Gas Production
4 Potential of Major U.S. Coal Basins
1.7.1 San Juan Basin
1.7.2 Black Warrior Basin
1.7.3 Raton Basin
1.7.4 Piceance Basin
1.7.5 Greater Green River Coal Region
1.7.6 Powder River Basin
1.7.7 Northern Appalachian Basin
1.7.12 Arkoma Basin
1.7.13 Uinta Basin
2.1 Formation of Coals
2.1.1 Stratigraphic Periods
2.1.2 Tertiary Coals of Western United States
2.1.3 Cretaceous Coals of Western United States
2.1.4 Carboniferous Coals of Eastern United States
2.1.5 Influence of Coal Properties
2.1.6 A Genesis Model of Coal
2.1.7 Geochemical Transformation
2.2 Coal Chemistry
2.2.1 Molecular Structure
2.2.2 Macerals
2.2.3 Lithotypes
2.2.4 Functional Groups
2.2.5 Proximate Analysis
2.2.6 Ultimate Analysis
2.3 Significance of Rank
2.3.1 Definition and Measurement
2.3.2 Vitrinite Reflectance Measurement
2.3.3 Physical Properties
2.3.4 Volatiles Generated
2.3.5 Micropores
2.4 Cleat System and Natural Fracturing
3.1.2 Langmuir Isotherm
3.1.3 Similarities of Adsorbed Methane and Liquid Behavior
3.1.4 Extended Langmuir Isotherm
3.1.5 Industry Uses of Adsorbents
3.2 The Isotherm Construction
3.3 CH4 Retention by Coalseams
4 Content Determination in Coalseams
3.5 The Isotherm for Recovery Prediction
3.6 Model of the Micropores
3.6.1 Pore Geometry
3.6.2 Carbon Molecular Sieves
3.7 Coal Sorption of Other Molecular Species
3.7.1 Swelling of Coal Matrix
3.7.2 Heavier Hydrocarbons
3.7.3 Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen
4.1 Coal as a Reservoir
4.2 Permeability
4.2.1 Drillstem Test (DST)
4.2.2 Slug Test
4.2.3 Injection Falloff Tests
4.2.4 Depth Effects on Permeability
4.2.5 Klinkenberg, Shrinkage, and Stress Effects on Permeability
4.2.6 Water Composition as Permeability Indicator
4.2.7 Relative Permeability
4.2.8 Butt and Cleat Permeabilities
4.3 Porosity
4.4 Gas Flow
4.4.1 Diffusion in Micropores
4.4.2 Darcy Flow in Cleats
4.4.3 Sorption Time
4.5 Reserve Analysis
4.5.1 Gas In Place
4.5.2 Decline Curves
4.6 Well Spacing and Drainage Area
4.7 Enhanced Recovery
5.1 Drilling
5.1.1 Drill Bits
5.1.2 Drilling Fluids
5.2 Cementing
5.2.1 Foam Cement
5.2.2 Lightweight Additives
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Borehole Environment
6.2.1 Downhole Environment
6.2.2 Wireline Logging
6.3 Tool Measurement Response in Coal
6.3.1 Natural Gamma Ray
6.3.2 Spontaneous Potential
6.3.3 Resistivity Measurements
6.3.4 Micro-Resistivity Measurements
6.3.5 Nuclear Measurements
6.3.6 Acoustic Measurements
6.3.7 Magnetic Resonance Measurements
6.3.8 Electrical Imaging
6.4 Wireline Log Evaluation of CBM Wells
6.4.1 Coal Identification
6.4.2 Coal Tonnage
6.4.3 Proximate Analysis
6.4.4 Gas Content in Coal
6.5 Gas-In-Place Calculations
6.6 Recovery Factor
6.7 Drainage Area Calculations8
6.8 Coal Permeability/Cleating
6.9 Natural Fracturing and Stress Orientation
6.10 Mechanical Rock Properties in CBM Evaluation
6.11 Summary
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Openhole Completions
7.3. Openhole Cavitation Process
7.3.1 Introduction
7.3.2 Case Study: Cavitation Research Project
7.3.3 Case Study: Devon Cavity Process
7.4 Cased-Hole Completions
7.4.1 Conditions for Cased Hole
7.4.2 Access by Slotting
7.4.3 Access by Perforating
7.5 Multizone Entry in Cased Hole
7.5.1 Baffled Entry
7.5.2 Frac Plug Entry
7.5.3 Partings Entry
7.5.4 Coiled Tubing and Packer Completions
8.1 Need for Fracturing Coals
8.1.1 Appalachian Wells Inadequately Stimulated
8.1.2 Unstimulated Wells in Big Run Field
8.2 Unique Problems in Fracturing Coals
8.2.1 Fines
8.2.2 Fluid Damage
8.2.3 Excessive Treating Pressures
8.2.4 Leakoff
8.3 Types of Fracturing Fluids for Coal
8.3.1 Crosslinked Gels
8.3.2 Water
8.3.3 Comparison of Gel and Water
8.3.4 Foam
8.3.5 Proppant Considerations
8.4 In-Situ Conditions
8.4.1 Rock Properties
8.4.2 Stress
8.4.3 Determining Stress Values
8.5 Visual Observation of Fractures
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Water Production Rates from Methane Wells
9.2.1 Initial Water Production Rates
9.2.2 Water Decline Rates
9.2.3 Anomalous Water Production Rates
9.3 Chemical Content
9.4 Environmental Regulations
9.4.1 Toxicity Limitations of Coalbed Water
9.4.2 Regulatory Agencies of the Warrior Basin
9.4.3 Regulatory Agencies of the San Juan Basin
9.5 Water Disposal Techniques
9.5.1 Surface-Stream Disposal
9.6 Summary
10.0 Introduction
10.1 Tax Credit
10.1.1 History of the Credit
10.2 Measures of Profitability
10.2.1 Criteria for Economical Methane Project
10.2.2 Comparison of Measures of Profitability
10.3 Costs
10.3.1 Drilling and Completion
10.3.2 Water Disposal
10.3.3 Finding Costs
10.4 Structured Resource Evaluation
10.4.1 Gas Content Sensitivity
10.4.2 Permeability Sensitivity
10.4.3 Spacing Sensitivity
10.4.4 Permeability Anisotropy Sensitivity
10.4.5 Fracture Length Sensitivity
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Coalbed Methane BOOK

Coalbed Methane BOOK

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Published by Truong Nguyen Huu

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Published by: Truong Nguyen Huu on Apr 26, 2013
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