© 2012 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. All rights reserved.
The Carnegie Endowment does not take institutional positions on public policy issues; the views represented here are the author’s own and do not necessarily reﬂect the views of the Endowment, its staff, or its trustees.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the Carnegie Endowment. Please direct inquiries to:Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Publications Department 1779 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20036 Tel. +1 202-483-7600 Fax: +1 202-483-1840 www.CarnegieEndowment.org is publication can be downloaded at no cost at www.CarnegieEndowment.org/pubs.
In memory of Egyptian sociologist Anouar Abdel-Malek, author of
Egypt’s Military Society
, who died on June 15, 2012, as this paper was in its ﬁnal stages of preparation.