© 2012 Carnegie Endowment or International Peace. All rights reserved.
The Carnegie Endowment does not take institutional positions on public policy issues; the views represented here are the authors’ own and do not necessarily
reect the views of the Endowment, its staff, or its trustees.
No part o this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any orm or by any means without permission in writing rom the Carnegie Endowment. Pleasedirect inquiries to:Carnegie Endowment or International PeacePublications Department1779 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20036el. +1 202-483-7600Fax: +1 202-483-1840 www.CarnegieEndowment.org Tis publication can be downloaded at no costat www.CarnegieEndowment.org/pubs.