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or smaller devices such asthe Tippy Tap for
Soap is a valuable commodity and might be takenfrom communal sites, so put some thought intoways of minimising this risk
eg tying it to string, or diluting it in water All handwashing sites should have adequatedrainage to prevent muddy conditions.
Just water, soap, or ash?
Soap is the ideal agent, but this is not alwaysavailable or affordable. Antibacterial soap is notadvised where there is ahigh incidence of skindiseases (such as in floodsituations) as it can beirritable. There also seemsto be no difference ineffectiveness betweenantibacterial soap andplain soap.
If no soap is available,washing hands with ash ispreferable to no agent atall. Soil, ash or mud as analternative to soap mayhave risks as they can becontaminated withpathogens
ash straight from thesourceIt is the rubbing of thehands which is important.
Promotion has to suit thecontext
culture, gender,children, environment etc;these issues should beconsidered at the assessment stage, to help withplanning interventionsIt is important to know the tar
existing behaviours and preferences for promotional material; e.g. Haitians enjoy music, soa catchy song by a popular singer can work well.
Traditional childrens‟ games can be very
successfully adapted to include hygiene messages,and can be fun to carry outEnsure the language / idiomatic expression and themethod used in the promotional material isunderstood; e.g. not everyone can read
especially women in some communitiesEncouraging handwashing should be included in alllatrine attendants
and health promoters
jobdescriptionsWomen are usually the cooks and carers, so it isimportant to target them for promotional activitiesHealth may not be the most important motivator for changes in hygiene behaviour. The desire for privacy & dignity, the observation of religious or cultural norms, or personal comfort may bestronger driving forces. Refer to the chapter onHygiene Promotion in the Sphere handbook whichhas a guidance note on motivating different groupsto take action.
Use shock tactics, if appropriate! To change a habityou may have to shock people into doingsomething different, giving them a powerfulmessage that really motivates them to think aboutwhat they are doing and change it
Methods that have been used successfully for handwashing promotion include:
Drama, plays, dancesSongsPuppetsClownsGamesDoor-to-door distribution of posters of leafletsDemonstrations
Places for handwashingpromotion include:
SchoolsPlaces of worshipCommunity centresMarket areasHealth centres / clinicsIn the homeIn summary,
key criteria for idealhandwashing devices are:
Low manufacturing costLightweight/transportableStrong/durableHigh water conservationLocally replicableUnisex, and cross-generationappropriateSimple to operateDisability consciousTheft resistantMaximum water filling frequency of two times/dayCulturally appropriate and acceptable by thecommunity.
What if our facilities get stolen?
In Solo camp, Liberia, Oxfam was providing water, sanitation, and hygienefacilities in camps. Following thedistribution of covered buckets with tapswidely to household, the threat of communal handwashing facilities being taken Staff was noticeably reduced. They then used the same buckets with taps to provide water for handwashing at communal points near latrines. It wasbecause everyone already had a similar bucket at home that no one felt the need to take the communal ones. Likewise,making soap readily available might
reduce people’s desire to steal communal
Don’t assume a lack of knowledge
In the displaced settlements in Haiti, public health staff put drums of water outside thelatrines and people were very happy touse them without the need for any awareness-raising. Making facilities easily available is often sufficient.