3 4 2
C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d i e s o f S o u t h A s i a, A f r i c a a n d t h e M i d d l e E a s t
cussion on Miyanji, which he himsel had vis-ited. Yaqut describes ‘Ayn al-Qudat as a scholarand man o letters and reers to his ather andgrandather as renowned judges. Like Yaqut,‘Abd al-Karim ibn Muhammad al-Sam‘ani,the author o
Kitab al- Ansab
The Book o Gene- alogies
), reers to ‘Ayn al-Qudat’s amily as he
stands under the entry to the city o al-Miyanji.
Al-Sam‘ani does not mention ‘Ayn al-Qudat but
talks about his ather, Abu Bakr Muhammad,and grandather, ‘Ali ibn al-Hasan, as learnedscholars and judges rom Miyanji. Accordingto al-Sam‘ani, ‘Ayn al-Qudat’s grandather wasamous not only in his hometown but also inBaghdad, where he had studied jurisprudence
with a number o renowned scholars.
that ‘Ayn al-Qudat was born in Hamadan, but
the exact date o his birth is open to dispute. In
his writings, ‘Ayn al-Qudat never reers to him-
sel by his name, ‘Abdallah, nor does he identiy
with his amily’s city o origin, Miyanji. He calls
himsel ‘Ayn al-Qudat. I have not seen any biog-
rapher explain the etymology o ‘Ayn al-Qudat’s
honorary name or explain in what sense thisname applies to him since we do not have any evidence that he held the position o a judge.This name seems to have some relation to the
act o his genealogy: both his ather and grand-
ather were judges, and it could mean that he is
the eye o the judges or the visionary (eye) who was born to these other judges. The nicknameitsel could mean the source or the judges, orthe very eye o the judges, or someone who isabove the judges to whom they should look. It
could also mean a holy warrior who died or his
convictions. ‘Ayn al-Qudat reers to himsel by
this name and expresses pride in his hometowno Hamadan.
‘Ayn al-Qudat was accused o heresy, ar-rested, and sent to prison in Baghdad; he wasreleased and returned to his hometown, wherehe was eventually executed on May ( Jumada al-Thani, AH ). He had anticipatedarrest and execution long beore it happenedand oretold his execution on numerous occa-
sions, in his personal correspondence as well asin his treatises. Moreover, he asserted his desireor death with longing, with a curious nostalgia
or it. He longed to be rid o this death calledliving. In the
, he explains that in thecity they call him a sorcerer because they un-derstand neither his connection to the unseen(
) nor his
reers to a letter rom his riend Kamil al-Dawla,
who warns him about such rumors.
Kamil al-Dawla wa al-Din has written that in the
city they say ‘Ayn al-Qudat claims he is God. And
asking or my death (appeal to
the sacred laws or my death). Oh riend, i they
ask you to
or my death, do it. My will toall is to write the ollowing as
: “God has
beautiul names, and we beseech him by those.
And those who make haste in burying in his
name shall be punished or their deeds” [Koran
:]. I mysel ask or this death in my prayers.
Alas, it is still ar o.
‘Ayn al-Qudat is said to have described the de-
tails o his execution in the ollowing verses:
We ask God or death and martyrdom And that we want by three worthless thingsI the riend does what we want We want re, oil, and straw.
The sources that tell us about ‘Ayn al-Qudat’sdeath are limited and leave out important in-ormation about his execution. He was put to
death in a violent manner, and his body was de-
stroyed. It is recorded that he was skinned aliveand cruciied in the courtyard o the school where he used to teach. His body was wrappedin a straw mat and set on re.
The author o
Tadhkarih- yi Riyad al- ’Arifn
The Biography o the Gardens o Mystics
) explains that the executiontook place beore the sultan. He is reerring to
3. ‘Abd al-Karim ibn Muhammad al-Sam‘ani,
The Book of Genealogies
) (Beirut: n.p., 1999),
4:381 – 82.4. Ibid.5. ‘Ayn al-Qudat al-Hamadhani,
, 4th ed., ed.
‘Af ‘Usayran (Tehran: Manuchehri, 1991), sec. 327 – 28,249 – 51. ‘Ayn al-Qudat does not explain who it is that
does not understand him: the townsfolk or the court.6.
, sec. 329, 251 – 52.
7. Rida Quli Khan Hidayat,
Tadhkarih- yi riyad al-‘arin
(The Biography of the Gardens of Mystics)
, ed. Mullah
‘Abd al-Hussayn and Mahmud Khawnsari (Tehran:
Intisharat Kitabfurushi Wisal, n.d.), 109.
8. ‘Ayn al-Qudat al-Hamadhani, “Zubdat al-haqa’iq”
(“The Essence of Reality”),
Musannafat-i ‘Ayn al- Qudat al-Hamadhani
The Compositions of ‘Ayn al- Qudat al-Hamadhani
), ed. ‘Afif ‘Usayran (Tehran:Tehran University Press, 1962), 1. This information is
, 108 – 9.