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The Commercial Awakening of the Moro and Pagan

The Commercial Awakening of the Moro and Pagan

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Published by profmarkdecena
A Classic Article on Philippine History
A Classic Article on Philippine History

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Published by: profmarkdecena on Apr 28, 2013
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University of Northern Iowa
The Commercial Awakening of the Moro and PaganAuthor(s): John P. FinleySource:
The North American Review,
Vol. 197, No. 688 (Mar., 1913), pp. 325-334Published by:
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Accessed: 27/04/2013 21:11
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This content downloaded from 180.191.105.224 on Sat, 27 Apr 2013 21:11:25 PMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
THECOMMERCIALAWAKENINGOFTHEMOROANDPAGAN
BYMAJOR JOHN" P.EINLEY,UNITEDSTATESARMY
In theLTnited Statesthearmyhas beenthe forerunnerofcivilizationthroughoutourgreatWesternempire,preparingvastterritoriesforStatehood andcementinganindissolubleunion.It hashelpedtheCubanpeopletotake allthesuccessivestepsnecessaryto the establishmentof theirownconstitutionalgovernmentandtransferredthatgovernment tothemamid universalexpressionsoffriendshipandgood-will.Itco-operatedwiththenavyinbreakingthepowerofSpainin thePacificand inacquiringdominiontherein,whichsuddenlyelevatedthe UnitedStatestoaworldpowerandseveredthebonds ofprovincialism.Ithas crushedand terminatedagreatinsurrection,February4,1899,toJuly4,1902,inthevastPhilippineArchipelago,withits 3.141islandsandislets anditstotalland and waterareaof832,968squaremiles.ItrearedastablegovernmentupontheashesofthePhilippineinsurrection and
transferredthebody politicintact andvigoroustothecivil
authoritiesonJuly1,1901.Thusfromastate ofenervatingpeacethemilitaryforcesofthecountryweresuddenlymobilized,followingthedestructionof theMaineonFebruary15,1898,andneverceased from incessant conflict untiltheproclamationofpeace
andamnestyinthePhilippines,issuedbythePresidentonJuly4,1902.The dualprocessbywhichthemilitary
powerhadsteadilyandconsistentlyacquiredcontrol,andexercisedtheauthorityofgovernmentoverthevariousprovincesof theArchipelago and,atthesametime,hadbeensupersededprogressivelybyciviladministration,wasthenterminated,andacompletesystemofcivilgovernment,con
structed underthePresident'sinstructionsofApril7,1900,
This content downloaded from 180.191.105.224 on Sat, 27 Apr 2013 21:11:25 PMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
326THENOETHAMEEICAN EEVIEW
wasinoperationreadytoproceedunder theauthorityofCongressasexpressedinthePhilippineGovernmentAct
ofJuly1,1902.Theestablishmentof civilgovernmentinthe Christian
provincesofthePhilippinesdidnotseparatethearmyfromanotherfunctiondevolvinguponit,inthecontrolanddevelopmentoftheMorosandPagansofthe southern islandsoftheArchipelago.
Theinstructionsofthe PresidenttothePhilippineCom
missionofApril7,1900,containedthefollowingreferencetothesepeople:
"Indealingwiththe uncivilized tribesoftheIslands the Commissionshouldadoptthesame coursefollowedbyCongressinpermittingthetribesofourNorth-American Indianstomaintain theirtribalorganization andgovernment,andunderwhichmanyof thosetribesarenowlivinginpeaceandcontentment,surroundedbyacivilization towhichtheyareunableorunwillingtoconform.Such tribalgovernmentsshould,however,besubjectedtowiseandfirmregulation,andwithoutunduecrpettyinterferenceconstantandactiveeffort shouldbeexercisedtopreventbarbarouspracticesandintroduce civilized customs."
Theseinstructionsalsoprovidethat themilitaryforcesinthePhilippinesshallbeatalltimessubject,undertheordersofthemilitarycommander,tothecallofthecivilauthoritiesforthemaintenance oflaw andorder and fortheenforcementoftheirauthority.The above instructionswereapprovedandadoptedbyCongressonJuly1,1902,andtheSecretaryofWardirectedthattheywouldcontinuetoguidethecivil and mili
taryauthoritiesinthePhilippinesintheirdealingswiththe
MorosandPagans.Inregardto the control ofthenon-Christiantribes,Mr.EootasSecretaryofWar,said:
"Thequestionstobeworkedout inthatprocessarealtogether apartfromthegeneralquestionsofgovernmentinthePhilippines,andsuchmeasuresofforceasarenecessarytocontrolthe variousMorotribeshavenomorerelationtothe recentPhilippineinsurrectionthanour
troubleswith the SiouxortheApacheshadtodowith thesuppressionoftheSouthern Rebellion."Thuswehavepresentedadistinct announcementoftheMoroproblem,andofitsgeneralrelationtotheotherprob
lemsinthePhilippines,beforetheGovernmentoftheUnited
States.
AftertheinaugurationofJudsre Taft(PresidentofthePhilippineCommission)asthe firstAmericanCivilGov
This content downloaded from 180.191.105.224 on Sat, 27 Apr 2013 21:11:25 PMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions

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