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Alexandria WSmithDictionaryVol1

Alexandria WSmithDictionaryVol1

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ALESIA.
mile
from
the
coast,
though
it
was
in
the
Roman
times
a
seaport.
[E.
H.
B.]
ALE'SIA
(Alise\
a
town
of
the
Mandubii,
who
were
neighbours
of
the
Aedui.
The
name
is
some-
times
written
Alcxia
(Floras,
iii.
10,
note,
ed.
Duker,
and
elsewhere).
Tradition
made
it
a
very
old
town,
fnr
thestory
was
that
it
was
founded
by
Herculeson
his
return
from
Iberia;
and
the
Celtae
were
saidto
venerate
it
as
the
hearth
(4<rna)
and
mother
city
of
all
Celtic*
(Diod.
iv.
19).
Strabo
(p.
191)
de-
scribes
Alesia
as
situated
on
a
lofty
hill,
and
sur-
rounded
by
mountains
and
bytwo
streams.
This
description
may
be
taken
from
that
of
Caesar
(B.
G.
vii.
69),
who
adds
that
in
frontof
the
town
there
was
a
plain
about
three
Roman
miles
long.
The
site
corresponds
to
thatof
Mont
Auxois,
closeto
which
is
a
place
now
called
Ste
Reine
dAlise.
The
two
streams
are
the
Lozerain
and
the
Loze,both
tributaries
of
the
Yonne.
In
B.
c.
52
the
Galli
made
a
last
effort
to
throw
off
the
Roman
yoke,
and
after
they
had
sustained
several
defeats,
a
large
force
under
Yercingetorix
shutthemselves
up
in
Alesia.
After
a
vigorous
resistance,
the
place
was
surrendered
to
Caesar,
and
Vercingetorix
was
made
a
prisoner
(B.
G.
vii.
68
90).
Caesar
doesnot
speak
ofthe
destruction
ofthe
place,
but
Florus
saysthat
it
was
burnt,
a
circumstance
which
is
not
inconsistent
with
its
beingafterwards
restored.
Pliny(xxxiv.
17.
s.
48)
speaks
of
Alesia
as
noted
for
silver-plating
articles
of
harness
for
horses
and
beasts
of
burden.
Traces
of
several
Roman
roads
tend
towards
this
town,
which
appears
to
have
been
finally
ruined
about
the
ninth
century
of
ouraera.[G.
L.]
ALE'SIAE
('AAeo-uu),
a
villagein
Laconia,
on
the
road
from
Therapne
to
Mt.
Taygetus,
is
placed
by
Leake
nearly
in
a
line
between
the
southern
ex-
tremity
of
Sparta
and
the
site
of
Bryseae.
(Paus.
iii.
20.2;
Leake,Peloponnesiaca,
p.
164.)
ALESIAEUM
('AAeo-jaTov),called
ALEI'SIUM
('AAeunoi/)
by
Homer,
a
town
of
Pisatis,
situated
upon
theroad
leading
across
the
mountainsfrom
Elis
to
Olympia.
Its
site
is
uncertain.(Strab.
p.
341
;
Horn.
//.
n.
617;
Steph.B.
s.v.
'AArjcnoi'.)
ALESIUS
MONS,
[MANTINEIA.]
ALETIUM
('AA7/Tw
Ptol.
iii.
1.
76;
Eth.
Aletinus,
Plin.
iii.
11.
s.
16),
a
town
ofCalabria,
mentioned,
both
by
Pliny
and
Ptolemy,
among
the
inland
cities
which
they
assign
to
the
Salentini.
Its
site
(erroneously
placed
by
Cluver
at
Lecce)
is
clearly
marked
by
the
ancient
church
of
Sta
Maria
della
Lizza
(formerly
an
episcopal
see)
near
the
village
of
Pisciotti,
about5
miles
from
Gallipoli,
on
the
road
to
Otranto,
Here
many
ancient
remains
have
been
discovered,
among
which
are
numerous
tombs,
with
inscriptions
in
the
Messapian
dialect.
(D'Anville,
Anal.
Geogr.
de
TItalie,
p.
233;
Momm-
sen,
Unter-Ital.Dialekte,
p.
57.)
The
name
is
corruptly
written
Baletium
in
the
Tab.
Feut.,
which
however
correctly
places
it
between
Neretum
(Nar-
r//>)
and
Uxentum
(Ugento),
though
the
distances
given
are
inaccurate.
In
Strabo,
also,
it
is
probablethat
we
should
read
with
Kramer
'AATjn'a
for
2a-
ATjTri'a,
which
he
describes
as
a
town
in
the
interior
of
Calabria,
a
short
distance
from
the
sea.
(Strab.
p.
282
;
andKramer,
ad
/oc.)
[E.
H.
B.]
ALEXANDREIA,
-IA
or
-EA
(TJ
'AAe|az/5pe<a:
Eth.
'AAe|ai/5pi;s,
more
rarely
'AAeav5piT7]s,
y,
Alexandrinus
;
fern.
the
modem
El-SkanderislC),the
Hellenic
capital
of
Kgypt,
was
founded
byAlexander
the
Great
in
B.
c.
ALEXANDREIA
95
332.
It
stood
in
lat.
31N.
;
long.
47
E.
(Arrian,
iii.
1,
p.
156;
Q.
Curt.
iv.
8.
2.)
On
his
TOJIgt
from
Memphis
to
Canobus
he
was
struck
by
the
natural
advantages
of
the
little
town
ofRhacotis,
on
the
north-eastern
angle
ofthe
Lake
Mareotis.
The
harbour
of
Rhacotis,
with
the
adjacent
island
of
Pharos,
had
been
from
very
remote
ages
(Horn.
Od.
iv.
355)
the
resort
of
Greekand
Phoenician
sea-rovers,
and
in
the
former
place
the
Pharaohs
kepta
permanent
garrison,
to
prevent
foreigners
entering
their
dominionsby
any
other
approachthan
the
city
of
Naucratis
and
the
Canobicbranch
of
the
Nile.
At
Rhacotis
Alexander
determined
to
constructthefuture
capital
ofhis
western
conquests.
His
archi-
tect
Deinocrates
was
instructed
to
survey
the
harbour,
and
to
draw
out
a
plan
of
a
military
and
commercial
metropolisof
the
first
rank.
(Vitruv.
ii.
prooem.
;
Solin.c.32;
Amm.
Marc.xxii.40;
Val.Max.i.
4.1.)
The
ground-plan
was
traced
by
Alexander
himself;
the
building
was
commenced
immediately,
but
the
city
was
not
completed
until
the
reignof
the
second
monarch
of
the
Lagid
line,
Ptolemy
Philadelphus.
It
continued
to
receive
embellishment
and
extension
from
nearly
every
monarch
of
that
dynasty.
The
plan
of
Deinocrates
was
carried
out
by
another
architect,
named
Cleomenes,
of
Naucratis.
(Justin,
xiii.
4.
1
.)
Ancient
writers(Strab.
p.
791,
seq.;
Plut.
Alex.
26;
Plin.
v.
10.
s.
11)
compare
thegeneral
form
of
Alexandreia
to
thecloak
(chlamys)
worn
by
the
Macedonian
cavalry.
It
was
of
an
oblong
figure,
rounded
at
the
SE.
and
SW.
extremities.
Its
length
from
E.
to
W.
was
nearly
-4
miles;
its
breadth
from
S.
to
N.
nearly
a
mile,
and
its
circumference,
ac-
cording
to
Pliny
(I.
c.)
was
about
15
miles.
The
interior
was
laid
out
in
parallelograms:the
streets
crossed
oneanother
at
right
angles,
and
were
all
wide
enough
to
admit
of
both
wheel
carriages
and
foot-passengers.
Two
grand
thoroughfares
nearly
bisected
the
city.
They
ran
in
straight
lines
to
its
four
principal
gates,
and
each
was
a
plethrum,
or
about
200
feet
wide.
The
longest,
40
stadia
in
length,
ran
from
the
Canobic
gate
to
that
of
the
Necropolis
(E.
W.):
the
shorter,
7
8
stadia
in
length,
extended
from
the
Gate
of
the
Sun
to
the
Gate
of
the
Moon
(S.
N.).
On
its
northern
side
Alexandreia
was
bounded
by
the
sea,
sometimes
de-
nominated
the
Egyptian
Sea:
on
the
south
by
the
Lake
of
Marea
or
Mareotis;
to
the
west
were
theNecropolis
and
its
numerous
gardens;
to
the
east
the
Eleusinianroad
and
the
Great
Hippodrome.
The
tongue
of
land
upon
which
Alexandreia
stood
was
singularly
adapted
to
a
commercial
city.
The
island
of
Pharos
broke
the
force
of
the
northwind,
and
of
the
occasional
high
floods
of
the
Mediterranean.
The
headland
of
Lochias
sheltered
its
harbours
to
the
east;
the
Lake
Mareotis
was
both
a
wet-dock
and
thegeneral
haven
of
the
inland
navigation
of
the
Nile-
valley,
whether
direct
from
Syene,
or
by
the
royal
canal
from
Arsinoeon
the
Red
Sea,
while
variousothercanals
connected
thelake
with
the
Deltaic
branches
of
the
river.
The
springs
of
Rha-
cotis
were
few
and
brackish
;
but
anaqueduct
con-
veyed
theNile
water
into
the
southern
section
of
the
city,
and
tanks,
many
of
which
are
still
in
use,
dis-
tributed
fresh
water
to
both
public
and
private
edi-
fires.
(Hirtius,
B.
Alex.
c.
5.)
The
soil,
partly
sandy
and
partly
calcareous,
rendereddrainage
nearly
superfluous.
The
fogs
which
periodically
linger
on
the
shores
of
Cyrene
and
Etrypt
were
dis-
persed
by
the
north
winds
which,
in
the
summer
season,
ventilate
the
Delta;
whilethe
salubrious
 
96
ALEX
ANDREI
A,
atmosphere
for
which
Alexandria
was
celebrated
was
directly
favoured
by
the
Luke
Mareotis,
whose
bed
was
annually
filled
from
the
Nile,
and
the
miasma
incident
to
lagoons
scattered
by
the
re-
gular
influxof
its
purifying
floods.
The
inclina-
tion
of
the
streets
from
eastto
west
concurred
with
these
causes
to
render
Alexandreia
healthy;
since
it
broke
the
force
of
the
Etesian
or
northern
breezes,
and
diffused
an
equable
temperature
overthe
city.
Nor
were
its
military
less
striking
than
its
com-
ALEXANDREIA.
mercial
advantages.
Its
harbours
were
sufficiently
capacious
to
admit
oflarge
fleets,
and
sufficiently
contracted
at
their
entrance
to
be
defended
by
booms
and
chains.
A
number
of
small
islands
around
the
Pharos
and
the
harbours
were
occupied
;with
forts,
and
the
approach
from
the
north
was
further
se-
cured
by
the
difficulty
of
navigating
among
the
limestone
reefs
and
mud-banks
which
front
the
de-
bouchure
of
the
Nile.
PLAN
OKALEXANDREIA.
1.
Acrolochias.
2.
Lochias.
3.
Closed
or
Eoyal
Port.
4.
Antirhodos.
5.
Royal
Dockyards.
6.
Poseideion.
7.
City
Dockyards
and
Quays.
8.
Gate
of
the
Moon.
9.
Kibotus,
Basin
of
Etinostus.
10.
Great
Mole
(Heptastadium).
11.
Eunostus,
Haven
of
Happy
Return.
12.
The
Island
Pharos.
13.
The
Tower
Pharos
(Diamond-Rock).
14.
The
Pirates'
Bay.
15.
Regio
Judaeorum.
16.
Theatre
of
the
Museum.
We
shall
first
describe
the
harbour-line,
and
next
the
interior
of
the
city.
The
harbour-line
commenced
from
the
east
with
the
peninsular
strip
Lochias,
which
terminated
sea-
ward
in
a
fort
called
Acro-Lochias,
the
modern
Pharillon.
The
ruins
of
a
pier
on
the
eastern
side
of
it
mark
an
ancient
landing-place,
probably
belonging
to
the
Palace
which,
with
its
groves
and
gardens,
occupied
this
Peninsula.
Like
all
the
prin-
cipal
buildings
of
Alexandreia,
it
commanded
aview
ofthe
bay
and
thePharos.
The
Lochias
formed,
with
the
islet
of
Antirhodus,
the
Closed
or
Royal
Port,
whichwas
kept
exclusively
for
the
king's
gallies,
and
around
the
head
of
which
were
the
Royal
Dock-
yards.
West
of
the
ClosedPort
was
thePoseideion
or
Temple
of
Neptune,
where
embarking
and
return-
ing
mariners
registered
their
vows.
The
northern
point
of
this
temple
was
called
the
Timonium,
whither
the
defeated
triumvir
M.
Antonius
retiredafter
his
flight
from
Actium
inb.
c.
31.(Plut.
17.
Stadium.
18.
Library
and
Museum.
19.
Soma.
20.Dicasterium.21.
Pauium.
22.
Serapeion.
23.
Rhacotis.
24.
Lake
Mareotis.
25.
Canal
to
Lake
Mareotis.
26.
Aqueduct
from
the
Nile.
27.
Necropolis.
28.
Hippodrome.
29.
Gate
of
the
Sun.
30.
Amphitheatre.
31.
Emporium
or
Royal
Exchange.
32.
Arsinoeum.
Anton.
69.)
Between
Lochias
and
the
Great
Mole(Heptastadium)
was
the
Greater
Harbour,
and
on
the
western
side
of
the
Mole
was
the
Haven
of
Happy
Return
(evi/ooTos),
connected
by
the
basin
(/agon-os,
chest)
with
thecanal
that
led,
by
one
arm,
to
the
Lake
Mareotis,
and
by
the
other
to
the
Canobic
ami
of
the
Nile.
The
haven
of
"
Happy
Return
"
frontedthe
quarter
of
the
city
called
Rhacotis.
It
was
less
difficult
of
access
than
theGreater
Har-
bour,as
the
reefs
and
shoals
lie
principally
NE.
of
the
Pharos.
Its
modern
name
is
the
Old
Port.
From
the
Poseideion
to
the
Mole
the
shore
was
lined
withdockyards
and
warehouses,
uponwhose
broad
granite
quays
ships
discharged
their
lading
without
the
interventionof
boats.
On
the
western
horn
ofthe
Eunostus
were
public
granaries.
Fronting
the
city,
and
sheltering
both
its
har-
bours,
lay
the
long
narrow
islandof
Pharos.
It
was
a
dazzling
white
calcareous
rock,
about
a
mile
from
Alexandreia,
and,
according
to
Strabo,
150
stadia
 
s
ALEXANDREIA.
from
the
Canobic
mouth
of
the
Nile.
At
its
eastern
point
stood
the
far-famed
lighthouse,
the
work
of
So-
strates
of
Cnidus,
and,nearerthe
Heptastadium,
was
a
temple
of
Phtah
or
Hephaestus.
The
Pharos
was
begun
by
Ptolemy
Soter,
butcompleted
by
his
suc-
cessor,
and
dedicated
by
him
to
"
the
gods
So-
teres,"
or
Soter
and
Berenice,
his
parents.
(Strab.
p.
792.)
It
consisted
of
several
stories,
and
is
baid
to
have
been
four
hundred
feet
in
height.
The
old
light-house
of
Alexandreia
still
occupies
the
site
of
its
ancient
predecessor.
A
deep
bay
on
the
northern
side
ofthe
island
was
called
the
"
Pirates'
Haven,"from
its
having
been
an
early
place
of
refuge
for
Carian
and
Samian
mariners.
The
islets
which
stud
the
northern
coast
of
Pharos
became,
in
the
4th
and
5th
centuries
A.
D.,
the
resort
of
Christian
anchorites.
The
island
is
said
by
Strabo
to
have
been
nearly
desolated
by
Julius
Caesar
when
he
was
besieged
by
the
Alexandrians
in
B.
c.
46.
(Hirt.
Alex.
17.)
The
Pharos
was
connected
with
the
mainland
by
an
artificial
mound
or
causeway,
called,
from
its
length(7
stadia,
4270
English
feet,
or
f
of
a
mile),
the
Heptastadium.
There
were
two
breaks
in
the
Mole
to
let
the
water
flow
through,
and
prevent
the
accumulation
of
silth
;
over
these
passages
bridges
were
laid,
which
could
be
raised
up
at
need.
The
temple
of
Hephaestus
on
Pharos
stoodat
one
ex-tremity
of
theMole,
and
the
Gate
of
the
Moon
on
the
mainland
at
the
other.
The
form
of
the
Hepta-
stadium
can
no
longer
be
distinguished,
since
modern
Alexandreia
is
principally
erected
upon
it,
and
upon
theearth
which
has
accumulated
about
its
piers.
It
probably
lay
in
a
direct
line
between
fort
Caffaretti
and
the
island.
Interim*
of
the
City.
Alexandreia
was
divided
into
three
regions.
(1)
The
Regio
Judaeorum.
(2)
The
Brucheium
or
Pyrucheium,
the
Royal
or
Greek
Quarter.
(3)
The
Rhacotis
or
Egyptian
Quarter.
This
division
corresponded
to
the
three
original
con-
stituents
of
the
Alexandrian
population
(rpia
yei'rj,
Polyb.
xxxiv.
14;
Strab.
p.
797,
seq.)
After
B.
c.
31
the
Romans
addeda
fourthelement,
but
this
was
principally
military
and
financial
(the
gam-
son,
the
government,
and
itsofficialstaff,
and
the
negotiatores),
and
confined
to
the
Region
Brucheium.
1.
Regio
Judaeorum,
or
Jews'
Quarter,
occupied
the
NE.
angle
of
the
city,
and
was
encompassed
by
the
sea,
the
city
walls,
and
the
Brucheium.Like
the
Jewry
of
modem
European
cities,
it
had
walls
and
gates
of
its
own,
which
were
at
timeshighly
necessary
for
its
security,since
between
the
Alexan-
drian
Greeks
and
Jews
frequent
hostilities
raged,
inflamed
both
by
political
jealousy
and
religious
hatred.
The
Jews
were
governed
by
their
own
Ethnarch,
or
Arabarches
(Joseph.
Antiq.
xiv.
7.
2,
10.
1,
xviii.6.
3,
xix.
5.
2,
B.
J.
ii.
18.
7),
by
asanhedrim
or
senate,
and
their
own
nationallaws.
Augustus
Caesar,
inB.
c.
31,
granted
to
the
Alexandrian
Jews
equal
privileges
with
their
Greek
fellow
citizens,
and
recorded
his
grant
by
a
public
inscription.
(Id.
Antiq.
xii.
3,
c.Apion.
2.)
Philo
Judaeus
(Legal,
in
Caium)
gives
a
full
account
of
the
immunities
of
the
Regio
Judaeorum.
They
were
frequently
confirmed
or
annulled
by
succes-
sive
Roman
emperors.
(Sharpe,
Hist,
of
J''.yypt,
p.
347,
seq.
2nd
edit.)
2.
Brucheium,
or
Pyrucheium
(Epv^e'iov,
Uvpo-
Xftbv,
Salmasius,
ad
Spartian.
Hadrian,
c.
20),
the
Royal
or
Greek
Quarter,
was
bounded
to
the
S.
and
K.
by
the
city
walls,
N.by
the
Greater
Harbour,
ALEXANDREIA.
97
and
W.
by
theregion
Rhacotis
and
the
main
street
which
connected
the
Gate
of
the
Sun
with
thatofthe
Moon
and
the
Heptastadium.
It
was
also
sur-
rounded
by
its
own
walls,
and
was
the
quarter
in
which
Caesar
defended
himself
againstthe
Alex-
andrians.
(Hirtius,
B.
Alex.
1.)
The
Brucheium
was
bisected
by
the
High
Street,
which
ran
from
the
Canobic
Gate
to
the
Necropolis,
and
was
supplied
with
water
from
the
Nile
by
a
tunnel
or
aqueduct,
which
entered
the
city
on
the
south,
and
passed
a
little
to
the
west
of
the
Gymnasium.
This
was
the
quarter
of
the
Alexandrians
proper,
or
Hellenic
citi-
zens,
the
Royal
Residence,
and
the
district
in
which
were
contained
the
most
conspicuous
of
the
public
buildings.
It
was
so
much
adorned
and
extended
by
the
later
Ptolemies
that
it
eventually
occupied
one-fifth
of
the
entire
city.
(Plin.
v.
10.
s.
11.)
It
contained
the
following
remarkable
edifices
:
On
theLochias,the
Palace
of
the
Ptolemies,
with
the
smaller
palaces
appropriated
to
their
children
and
the
adja-
cent
gardens
and
groves.
The
far-famed
Library
and
Museum,
with
its
Theatre
for
lectures
and
public
assemblies,
connected
with
oneanother
and
with
the
palaces
by
longcolonnades
of
the
most
costly
marble
from
the
Egyptian
quarries,
and
adorned
with
obelisks
and
sphinxes
taken
from
the
Pharaonic
cities.
The
Library
contained,
according
to
one
account,
700,000
volumes,
according
to
another
400,000
(Joseph.
Antiq.
xii.
2
;
Athen.
i.
p.
3)
;
part,
however,
of
this
unrivalled
collection
was
lodged
in
the
temple
of
Serapis,
in
the
quarter
Rha-
cotis.
Here
were
deposited
the
200,000
voluir.es
collected
by
the
kings
of
Pergamus,
and
presented
by
M.
Antonius
to
Cleopatra.
The
library
of
the
Museum
was
destroyed
during
the
blockade
of
Julius
Caesar
in
the
Brucheium;
that
of
theSerapeion
was
frequentlyinjured
by
the
civil
broils
of
Alex-
andreia,
and
especially
when
that
temple
was
de-
strojed
by
the
Christian
fanatics
in
the
4th
century
A.D.
It
was
finally
destroyed
by
the
orders
of
the
khalif
Omar,
A.
D.
640.
The
collection
was
begun
by
Ptolemy
Soter,
augmented
by
his
successors,
for
the
worst
of
the
Lagidae
were
patrons
of
litera-
ture,
and
respected,
if
not
increased,
by
the
Cae-
sars,
who,
like
theirpredecessors,
appointed
and
sala-
ried
the
librarians
and
the
professors
of
the
Museum.
The
Macedonian
kings
replenishedthe
shelves
of
the
Library
zealously
but
unscrupulously,
since
they
laid
anembargo
on
all
books,
whether
public
or
privateproperty,
which
were
brought
to
Alexandreia,
retained
the
originals,
and
gave
copiesof
them
to
their
proper
owners.
In
this
way
Ptolemy
Euergetes
(B.
c.
246
221)
is
said
to
have
got
possession
of
authentic
copiesof
the
works
of
Aeschylus,
Sophocles,
and
Euripides,
and
to
have
returned
transcriptsof
them
to
the
Athenians,
with
an
accompanying
compensation
of
fifteen
talents.
The
Museum
succeeded
the
once
renowned
collegeof
Heliopolis
as
the
University
of
Egypt.
It
contained
a
great
hall
or
banqueting
room
(olxos
jj-tya.^,
where
the
professors
dined
in
common;
an
exterior
peristyle,
orcorridor
(-Trepnra-
TOI),
for
exercise
and
ambulatory
lectures;
a
theatre
where
publicdisputations
and
scholastic
festivals
were
held
;
chambers
for
the
different
professors
;
and
possessed
a
botanical
garden
which
Ptolemy
Phila-
delphus
enriched
with
tropical
flora
(Philostrat.
Vit.
Apollon.
vi.
24),
and
a
menagerie(Athen.
xiv.
p.
654).
It
was
divided
into
four
principal
sections,
poetry,
mathematics,
astronomy,
and
medicine,
and
enrolled
among
its
professorsor
pupils
the
illustrious
names
of
Euclid,
Ctesibius,
Callimachus,
A
ratus,

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