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Paper-4 Voltage Controlled, Low-Pass and High-Pass Filter Using Analog Multiplier

Paper-4 Voltage Controlled, Low-Pass and High-Pass Filter Using Analog Multiplier

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Published by ijciiseditor
To Shape the envelope of the sound being generated in the field of sound and music synthesis, voltage-controlled filters are used. This paper presents the voltage controlled, low pass and high filter using four quadrants Gilbert multiplier. It also demonstrates the layout of four coordinate Gilbert multiplier. All the simulations have been performed at the 45nm technology on tanner EDA tool.
To Shape the envelope of the sound being generated in the field of sound and music synthesis, voltage-controlled filters are used. This paper presents the voltage controlled, low pass and high filter using four quadrants Gilbert multiplier. It also demonstrates the layout of four coordinate Gilbert multiplier. All the simulations have been performed at the 45nm technology on tanner EDA tool.

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Published by: ijciiseditor on Apr 29, 2013
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International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, April 2013, Vol. 4 No. 4,ISSN: 1837-782334
Voltage Controlled, Low-Pass and High-Pass Filter using Analog Multiplier
Komal Mehna and Prof. B. P. Singh
FET, Mody Institute of Technology & Science Lakshmangarh, Sikar (Rajsathan), India
Abstract
 To Shape the envelope of the sound being generated in the field of sound and music synthesis, voltage-controlled filters are used. This paper presents the voltage controlled, low pass and high filter using fourquadrants Gilbert multiplier. It also demonstrates the layout of four coordinate Gilbert multiplier. All thesimulations have been performed at the 45nm technology on tanner EDA tool.
Keywords:
Voltage Multiplier, Gilbert Cell, threshold voltage, substrate doping density
1. Introduction
Our surrounding world is analog in nature. Digital systems require an analog to digital conversion at thefront of the system and digital to analog conversion at its end. Analog computation and signal processing make itsimpler and faster [1]. Analog signal processing represents the signals as physical quantities like e.g. charge,current, voltage or frequency. These signals are continuous in time. One of the essential components in analogcircuit design is the analog multiplier. In electronics, an analog multiplier is a device, which takes two analogsignals as input and produces an output, which is proportional to their product. An Analog multiplier is animportant sub circuit for many applications such as adaptive filters and frequency modulators [2]. They arewidely used in contemporary VLSI chips for modulation/demodulation, other non-linear operations includingdivision, square rooting as well as frequency conversion. In most of the mentioned applications, the requiredfeatures of the multiplier are good isolation between input and output ports (especially for RF systems), wideinput dynamic range, wide bandwidth, symmetric input to output delay in communication systems, low powerdissipation and low supply voltage [3]. Most of the analog multipliers are based on the MOSFET square lawapproximation of the drain current either in saturation region or triode region [4] or Gilbert cell. To implementthe multipliers in IC technologies, the Gilbert cell is a popular and the oldest structure in IC technologiesdue to wide dynamic range and high frequency performance [5]. The Gilbert cell uses the cascadeddifferential pair to expand the input voltage range for 4-quadrant multiplications [6].
1.2
 
 Type Of Multiplication1.2.1
 
On the Basis of Polarity of One or the Both Inputs
a)
 
Single quadrant multiplier
 
b)
 
 Two quadrant multiplier
 
c)
 
Four quadrant multiplier
 
a)
 
Single Quadrant Multiplier
 
Figure 1:
Single quadrant multiplier
 
International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, April 2013, Vol. 4 No. 4,ISSN: 1837-782335If a particular multiplier circuit is designed to accept only one polarity of input on each of its inputs i.e. bothinputs must be positive, then its operation will be limited to single quadrant & it will call one quadrant or asingle quadrant multiplier. Single quadrant multiplier is shown in Fig. 1 where V
X
& V
 Y
both are the inputvoltages.
b)
 
 Two Quadrant Multiplier
 
If a particular multiplier circuit requires a single polarity on one input but accepts both polarities on theother, then the device is called two quadrants multiplier as shown in the Fig. 2. If one input i.e. V
 Y
is positive andthe other is allowed to swing between both positive and negative.
Figure 2:
 Two-quadrant multiplier
c)
 
Four Quadrant Multiplier
If a multiplier is designed to accept either polarity on both of the inputs, then the device is called four-quadrant multiplier as shown in Fig. 3.
 
In this both inputs, V
X
& V
 Y
, swing between positive and negative.
 
Figure 3:
Four-quadrant multiplier
1.2.2
 
Referring to the Input Variables
a)
 
Voltage multiplierb)
 
Current multiplier
a)
 
Voltage Multiplier
 
When output current is proportional to the product of the two input voltages then multiplier is known asvoltage multiplier [7].
b)
 
Current Multiplier
 
When output current is proportional to the product of the two input currents then multiplier is known ascurrent multiplier. The current-mode operation of the multiplier circuits has the important advantage of 
 
International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, April 2013, Vol. 4 No. 4,ISSN: 1837-782336increasing the frequency response of the designed structures [7]..
2. Existing 12 T Multiplier
For providing the load, use of resistors may require external resistors, which occupy a large chip area toimplement in IC form and also cause of the multiplier frequency degradation [8] .
Figure 4:
Circuit diagram of existing 12T Gilbert cell based multiplier
In this circuit, transistor MP1, MP2 and MP3
 
act as a current mirror. The current mirror used to provide theactive load. Transistor M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6
 
from the Gilbert cell architecture. M
7
and M
8
are the biastransistors, used to provide the constant current [9]. Outp and Outn are the positive and negative terminalsrespectively, of output V
OUT
as shown in Fig. 4.
 
3. Proposed Low Pass and High Pass Filter
Existing 12T Gilbert cell based multiplier [9] presents in Fig. 4 is modified by grounding the body terminalof all the nMOS transistors and connecting the body terminal of transistor MP4 to V
DD.
The improved multiplier[10] circuit is shown in Fig. 5.
Figure 5:
Circuit diagram of improved multiplier
 

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