Since the Egyptian’s and Mesopotamian’s first successful efforts to control the flow of water thousands of years ago,a rich history of hydraulics has evolved. Sec. 1.2 contains abrief description of some ancient hydraulic structures that are found around the world.During the 20th century,many new developments have occurred in both theoretical andapplied hydraulics. A number of handbooks and textbooks on hydraulics have been pub-lished,as indicated in Fig. 1.1. From the viewpoint of hydraulic design,however,onlymanuals,reports,monographs,and the like have been published,mostly by governmentagencies. Unfortunately,many aspects of hydraulic design have never been published asa compendium. This
Hydraulic Design Handbook
is the first effort devoted to producinga comprehensive handbook for hydraulic design. The book covers many aspects of hydraulic design,with step-by-step procedures outlined and illustrated by sample designproblems.
1.2ANCIENT HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
1.2.1A Time Perspective
Although humans are newcomers to earth,their achievements have been enormous. It wasonly during the Holocene epoch (10,000 years ago) that agriculture developed (keep inmind that the earth and the solar system originated 4,600 million years ago). Humans havespent most of their history as hunters and food-gatherers. Only in the past 9,000 to 10,000years have humans discovered how to raise crops and tame animals. Such changes prob-ably occurred first in the hills to the north of present-day Iraq and Syria. The remains of the prehistoric irrigation works in Mesopotamia and Egypt still exist. Table 1.1 presents achronology of knowledge about water.Figure 1.2 illustrates the chronology and locations of various civilizations rangingfrom India to Western Europe. This figure,from O. Neugebaur’s book titled
The Exact Sciences in Antiquity
,illustrates the Hellenistic period the era of “ancient science,”during which a form of science developed that spread later from Europe to India.This ancient science was dominant until the creation of modern science dominant inIsaac Newton’s time.
Larry W. Mays
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State UniversityTempe,Arizona