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Energy Efficient Routing Protocol Using Local Mobile Agent for Large Scale WSNs

Energy Efficient Routing Protocol Using Local Mobile Agent for Large Scale WSNs

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2013, Journal of Computing, eISSN 2151-9617, http://www.journalofcomputing.org/, Call For Computer Science Papers
2013, Journal of Computing, eISSN 2151-9617, http://www.journalofcomputing.org/, Call For Computer Science Papers

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Published by: Journal of Computing on Apr 29, 2013
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Energy Efficient Routing Protocol UsingLocal Mobile Agent for Large Scale WSNs
Ali Seirafi, Mohammad Hadi Moazzam, Farshad Kabiri Samani
The energy consumption is always an important topic for research on routing protocols of wireless sensor networks.Many algorithms are introduced in this field and each of them can propose solutions in order to improve the energy consumptionissue. Energy Efficient Cluster Head Selection (EECHS) is one of the most well known protocols in WSN, but its performancedecreases with increase of the network scale. To solve this problem, we introduce an improved routing protocol uses a newmulti hop transmission method to balance energy consumption among the whole network. This approach reduces the timedistance between failing of the first and the last nodes at minimum and keeps network coverage until the last moments. Thesimulation results performed in MATLAB, show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient and increases the network lifetime.
Index Terms
Local Mobile Agent, Clustering, Routing Protocol, Network Lifetime.
1 I
 n the WSN, the network composed of a huge number ofsmall self-contained devices with computational, sens-ing and wireless communication capabilities coveringthe monitoring area.Energy consumption is one of the major challenges andmany studies have attempted to tackle this problem.Nodes are powered by a small battery, which may runout in a short time [1]. Hence, an efficient routing protocolcan increase the network lifetime.According to the final topology, the routing protocols ofWSN are categorized into two types; flat routing and hi-erarchical routing protocols. As flat routing protocolsneed to maintain large routing table information, they areunsuitable for large-scale sensor networks. Hierarchicalcan solve this problem to a certain extent.Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH)[2] is one of the first major algorithms based on hierar-chical method. LEACH is a completely distributed rout-ing algorithm which does not require any global infor-mation for cluster formation and routing.The clusteringstrategy is mainly depends on the randomly selected clus-ter-heads and does not consider the residual energy ofnodes. [3]Many clustering algorithms are based on LEACH ar-chitecture and improve the network lifetime. Energy Effi-cient Cluster Head Selection (EECHS) [4] is one of them.It considers the factor of residual energy, distance fromthe Base Station and the number of consecutive rounds inwhich a node has not been a cluster head.In this study, EECHS algorithm is improved by theaddition of two factors; distance between cluster headsand minimum energy that each node require to be a clus-ter head. Simulation result shows that proposed protocol hasbetter performance than LEACH and EECHS.
2 R
LEACH is a time division multiple access based ondistributed clustering approach in homogeneous WSNs.[5] The algorithm is self-organized, employs a single hopapproach and the data combination technique can de-crease the rate of data transfer. This algorithm is dividedinto two stages; setup stage and steady stage.During the first stage, all nodes are organized intosome clusters through communicating with short mes-sages and one node is selected as a cluster head accordingto the cluster head selection algorithm. At the beginningof this phase every node in the network must decidewhether it will become a cluster head or not. This deci-sion is made by the node n choosing a random numberbetween 0 and 1. If the number is less than a thresholdT(n), the node becomes a cluster head for the currentround. [6] The threshold value T(n) is calculated by (1),where p is the predetermined percentage of cluster heads,r is the current round number, and G is the set of nodesthat have not been cluster head in the last 1/p rounds.
Gnif  n Gnif   p p pn
    
 Ali Seirafi is with the department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Lenjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
 Mohammad Hadi Moazzam is with the Engineering Faculty, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran
Farshad Kabiri Samani is with the department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Lenjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 5, ISSUE 2, FEBRUARY 2013, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputingWWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG1
After the setup stage, cluster heads simultaneouslybroadcast TDMA scheduling messages using spreadingcodes to start the steady stage, which involves data signalsending from non-CH nodes to the CH nodes by TDMAscheduling, aggregation and routing to the Base. LEACHuses a single hop routing algorithm and each CHs sendthe aggregated data to the Base Station in a single hopmanner. [7] LEACH is based on rounds and the system repeats theclustering and transmission for each round. LEACH hasits own defects, but improved algorithms will definitelysolve these problems. Some of these problems are as fol-lows:1.
Cluster heads are predefined in LEACH protocoltypically taken as 5% or 10% of total deployednodes. If sensor nodes in the network are not uni-formly distributed, specified number of clustersmight not be sufficient to cover the entire area.2.
Cluster heads send aggregated data to the BaseStation in a single hop manner, so consume a lotof energy.3.
Probability function T(n) does not take residualenergy of nodes into account while selectingcluster heads, so if a less energy node becomesCH, it will fail and subsequently the cluster net-work becomes dysfunctional.4.
It consist of rounds while in each round, all sen-sor nodes take part in reconstructing new clus-ters and this action consumes a lot of energy. [4]
EECHS [2] improves the LEACH protocol by improvingthe election strategy of the cluster heads, considering re-sidual energy, distance from the Base Station, number ofconsecutive rounds in which a node has not been a clusterhead.In EECHS, stochastic cluster head selection algorithmis extended by adjusting the threshold T(n) denoted in (1),considering the residual energy of the nodes, distancebetween the nodes and the Base Station and the numberof consecutive rounds in which a node has not been acluster head as follows: 
)]())(1()([ mod1)(
div si Di E   p p pn
    
 (2)Here the residual energy factor is:E(i) = (E
(i) /E
) Where E
is the remainingamount of energy and E
is the initial energy of a nodebefore transmission and Variable i indicates the serialnumber of nodes.The Distance factor D(i)=d
Where debt is the dis-tance from node i to Base as shown in (3):
 BS i BS iiB
 X  X 
(3) And d
is the distance of the farthest node from theBase Station. Here X
and Y
are the location of the BaseStation.In the third parameter (s div r), s is the number of consec-utive rounds in which a node has not been a cluster headand r is the number of the current round.Instead of considering these three important parame-ters, EECHS does not consider the factor that whether thenodes remaining energy are sufficient enough to send theaggregated data to the Base Station or not. Besides, inEECHS, there is no limitation for location of cluster heads.
3 P
In 2.1 and 2.2 sections, LEACH and EECHS Algorithmsare investigated along with problems existed in each ap-proach.
A method will be presented in this part
have any drawbacks of the two previous methods. Toimprove the insufficiency of LEACH and EECHS, we in-troduce an improved protocol in this paper. This protocollike LEACH and EECHS divided into two stages includesetup stage and steady stage.Before describing the algorithm, network modelshould be investigated.
3.1 Network Model
For our proposed approach, we adopt a few reasonableassumptions as follows: [2, 3] 1.
Sensor nodes are immobile.2.
Nodes are not able to access Base directly.3.
The Base Station is located at a far distancefrom the sensor nodes and is immobile.4.
All nodes are able to control their transmitpower to change the communication range.5.
Access of nodes to the Base is performed by aspecial node called Local Mobile Agent (LMA)located in the center of the network, in a circlewith L radius.6.
All sensor nodes are homogeneous and havethe same hardware components except LMAwhich includes specific components.7.
The LMA is the only mobile node in the net-work.8.
Regarding to the access of Local Mobile Agentto the wireless charging equipment, the ener-gy of this node will be considered unlimited.9.
Radio and energy model is the same as radiomodel in [2], which is called first radio model.
3.2 Setup Stage
1. CH selection
In addition to the factors that EECHS algorithm is uti-lized in the cluster head selection process, two other fac-tors that are ignored in this algorithm will be added to the
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 5, ISSUE 2, FEBRUARY 2013, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputingWWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG2
previous set, although they have significant impact onenergy consumption.
The first factor is the minimum energy required. If thenodes remaining energy is not sufficient enough to sendthe aggregated data to the Base Station, then a flag varia-ble called MER (Minimum Energy Required) will be tak-en as 0. And if the remaining energy is sufficient, then itwill be taken as 1.Considering the additional factor MER with all three fac-tors as in [2] the modified threshold T(n) becomes:
)]()()(1()([ mod1)(
i MERdiv si Di E   p p pn
    
This factor guarantees that if it doesn’t have enough e
n-ergy for operation as a cluster head, but it can be operatedon the network as an usual node for a while
doesn’t b
e-come a cluster head.Another factor is the distance between cluster heads inthe network. In order to prevent the congestion of clusterheads in a particular area, the distance between the CHscannot be less than d (d is an ideal radius, and its calcula-tion is given by (5) ), so it can ensure that the CHs will notbe assigned to a centralized location. [8]
   
 y x
 (5)Where x is the length of the sensor network , y is thewidth of the sensor network, the value of
is 3.14 , k isthe number of CHs in the sensor network, the value of
 is between (1, 2), here we select 1.1.
Fig. 1. The distribution of nodes. 
In the process of CH selection, CHs will broadcast theadvertisement messages, when other nodes receive themessages, they will calculate the distance from the signalstrength of the messages, and record the minimum value.If the value is greater than d, this node can turn into CH,otherwise, this node will not. As shown in Fig.1, twonodes 21 and 47 have been acting as CH in the network.All nodes in the two circular areas have lost their eligibil-ity to turn into CH, as nodes 7, 15, 41, 68, 72, 94.The process of CHs selection is shown in Fig.2 
Fig. 2. CH selection process. 
2. Cluster Formation
In the process of CH selection, CHs will inform all nodesthat act as non-CH in this round by sending CH broadcastmessage. In order to avoid the collision of individualmessages, the CSMA mechanism is used to send broad-cast messages. The broadcast message is a very small
message including the node’s ID and a header that disti
n-guishes this message. Each non-CH node determines thedistance to CH node based on the received signal strengthof the broadcast message. In order to reduce the energyconsumption that communicates with CH, non-CH willchoose the nearest CH to join. After each node has decid-ed to which cluster it belongs to, they must inform the CHnode that it will be a member of the cluster by sending a join request message to the chosen CH using CSMAmechanism. CH node confirms the members of this clus-ter according to the join request messages that received.When all non-CH nodes are finished to join the cluster,CH will produce a slot table based on the members of thecluster using TDMA mechanism. At the same time, CHwill get a cluster channel based on the sequence of be-coming CH. In addition to these cluster channels, the im-proved protocol also assigned a common channel fortransmitting the control information in cluster setup stage
Node generates a randomnumber between
zero and one.
This node serve asCH and sendbroadcast messageMeasurement of the distance of nodefrom LMA and determinationof the farthest node to LMA
LMA placement inthe specified location
HasThe node been a CHduring this loop?
Numberof received broadcastmessage < k
The beginningof CH selection
Is thisnumber less than thresholdof T(n)?
Is thedistance between cluster headsmore than d?
This node cannot be a CHCH selectionis completed
   N  e  x   t  n  o   d  e   N  e  x   t  n  o   d  e
Cluster head
Member node
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 5, ISSUE 2, FEBRUARY 2013, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputingWWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG3

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