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Hummus - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

Hummus - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

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Published by: Hunter6677 on Apr 29, 2013
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Hummus with olive oil
OriginPlace of origin
Egypt, Levant
Serving temperature
Main ingredient(s)
Chickpeas, tahini
Hummus with pine nuts and oliveoil
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
) is a Middle Eastern and Arabicfood dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeasblended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt andgarlic.
Today, it is popular throughout the Middle East, Turkey, North Africa, Morocco, and in Middle Easterncuisine around the globe.
1 Etymology2 History3 Nutritional information4 Serving methods4.1 Israeli4.2 Palestinian5 Packaged product5.1 United States6 Controversy7 World record8 See also9 References10 Bibliography11 Further reading
Hummus is an Arabic word (
) meaning "chickpeas," and the complete name of the preparedspread in Arabic is
ḥummuṣ bi ṭaḥīna,
which means "chickpeas with tahini".
Spellings of theword in English can be inconsistent.
"Houmous" is the standard spelling in British English. Among otherspellings are
Many cuisine-related sources describe hummus as an ancient food,
or connect it to famous historical figures such as Saladin.
Indeed, its basic ingredientschickpeas, sesame, lemon, andgarlic—have been eaten in the region for millennia.
But in fact, there is no specific evidence for this purported ancienthistory of 
hummus bi tahini.
Though chickpeas were widely eaten inthe region, and they were often cooked in stews and other hot dishes,
puréed chickpeas eaten cold with tahini do not appear before theAbbasid period in Egypt and the Levant.
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Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)Energy
695 kJ (166 kcal)
Percentages are relative toUS recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database (http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list)
Hummus, commercial
Hummus topped with whole chickpeasand olive oil.
 The earliest known recipes for a dish similar to
hummus bi tahini
are recorded in cookbooks published inCairo in the 13th century.
A cold purée of chickpeas with vinegar and pickled lemons with herbs, spices,and oil, but no tahini or garlic, appears in the
 Kitāb al-Wusla ilā l-habīb fī wasf al-tayyibāt wa-l-tīb
anda purée of chickpeas and tahini called
hummus kasa
appears in the
Kitab Wasf al-Atima al-Mutada
: it isbased on puréed chickpeas and tahini, and acidulated with vinegar (though not lemon), but it also containsmany spices, herbs, and nuts, and no garlic. It is also served by rolling it out and letting it sit overnight,
which presumably gives it a very different texture from
hummus bi tahini
Nutritional information
Hummus is high in iron and vitamin C and also hassignificant amounts of folate and vitamin B6.
Thechickpeas are a good source of protein and dietary fiber;the tahini consists mostly of sesame seeds, which are anexcellent source of the amino acid methionine,complementing the proteins in the chickpeas. Dependingon the recipe, hummus carries varying amounts of monounsaturated fat.
Hummus is useful in vegetarianand vegan diets; like other combinations of grains andpulses, it serves as a complete protein when eaten withbread.
Serving methods
As an appetizer and dip, hummus is scooped with flatbread, such as pita. It is also served as part of a meze oras an accompaniment to falafel, grilled chicken, fish or eggplant. Garnishes include chopped tomato,cucumber, coriander, parsley, caramelized onions, sautéed mushrooms, whole chickpeas, olive oil,hard-boiled eggs, paprika, sumac, ful, olives, pickles and pine nuts (as photographed in the "History"section). Outside the Middle East, it is sometimes served with tortilla chips or crackers.
Hummus ful
) is topped with a paste made from fava beans boiled until soft and thencrushed.
Hummus masubha/mashawsha
is a mixture of hummus paste, warm chickpeas and tahini.In
Vegetarian Dishes fromthe Middle East
, Arto der Haroutunian calls hummus, "One of the most popularand best-known of all Syrian dishes" and a "must on any mezzeh table."
Syrians in Canada's Arabdiaspora prepare and consume hummus along with other dishes like falafel, kibbe and tabouleh, even amongthe third and fourth-generation offspring of the original immigrants.
Hummus is a common part of everyday meals in Israel.
Asignificant reason for the popularity of hummus in Israel is the factthat it is made from ingredients that, following Kashrut (Jewishdietary laws), can be combined with both meat and dairy meals.Few other foods can be combined with a wide variety of mealsconsistently with the dietary laws.
It is seen as almost equallypopular amongst Israeli Jews and Israeli Arabs.
As a result of itspopularity, Israelis elevated hummus to become a "national foodsymbol" and consume more than twice as much hummus as neighbouring Arab countries, according tofigures by Tsabar Salads, a hummus manufacturer in Israel.
Commenting on its popularity, Gil Hovav, an
Hummus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hummu2 of 627/04/2013 12:47 p.m.
Hummus topped with ful and tehina
Israeli food editor interviewed on the BBC program
Cooking in theDanger Zon
, stated that "even during the intifada years Jews wouldsneak [...] into the Muslim quarter just to have a vital, really genuinegood humous [
]," and noted that like many dishes considered to beIsraeli national foods, hummus is actually Arab.
However, he alsosaid, commenting on Iraqi, Egyptian, Syrian or Yemeni food in Israel,that "Jews came from these countries to Israel and they brought theirfood with them".
Many restaurants run by Mizrahi Jews and Arabcitizens of Israel are dedicated to hot hummus, which may be servedas chick peas softened with baking soda along with garlic, olive oil,cumin and tahini. One of the fancier hummus versions available is
hummus masabacha
, made with lemon-spiked tahini garnished withwhole chick peas, a sprinkling of paprika and a drizzle of olive oil.
Hummus is sold in restaurants,supermarkets and hummus-only shops (known in Hebrew as
For Palestinians, hummus has long been a staple food, often served warm, with bread, for breakfast, lunch ordinner.
All of the ingredients in hummus are easily found in Palestinian gardens, farms and markets, thusadding to the availability and popularity of the dish. In Palestinian areas, hummus is usually garnished, witholive oil,
mint leaves, paprika, parsley or cumin.
A related dish popular in the region of Palestineand Jordan is
laban ma' hummus
("yogurt and chickpeas"), which uses yogurt in the place of tahini andbutter in the place of olive oil and is topped with pieces of toasted bread.
Packaged product
United States
By the end of the 20th century, hummus had emerged as part of the American culinary fabric.
In 2008,more than fifteen million Americans consumed hummus on a regular basis.
Hummus became a popularstaple in American restaurants with the Armenian migration from Lebanon to Southern California and theEast Coast after the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990).
It was further popularized in the United States by Jews returning from visits in Israel and by Israeli expatriates.
According to a 2010 market research, hummus consumption in the United States has increased by 35% overa period of 21 months, with sales reaching nearly $300 million. In 2006, hummus was present in 12% of American households, rising to 17% by early 2009.
One commentator attributed the growth of Hummusto America’s embrace of ethnic foods, and to experimentation with exotic foods.
In November 2009, Gadi Lesin, President & CEO of the Israeli Strauss group food manufacturer said thatmarket share of co-owned Sabra Dipping Company in the USA makes it the largest packaged hummus dipmanufacturer in the world.
In October 2008, the Association of Lebanese Industrialists petitioned to the Lebanese Ministry of Economyand Trade to request protected status from the European Commission for hummus as a uniquely Lebanesefood, similar to the Protected Geographical Status rights held over regional food items by various EuropeanUnion countries.
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