A convex is a polygon in which any line joining twopoints within the polygon lies within the polygon. Alex-ander Kolesnikov  gives similar definitions of convexi-ty, the first is that, a subset set S of the plane is calledconvex if and only if for any pair of points P, Q
S theline segment PQ is completely contained in S. The secondgoes as, a set S is convex if it is exactly equal to the inter-section of all the half planes containing it. The figuresbelow show convex and non-convex shapes.
Figure 2: The convex and non-convex shapes
1.3. Convex Hull
Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed and Raghavendra Kyatha establish that the Convex Hull of a set Q of points isthe smallest convex polygon P, for which each point in Qis either on the boundary of P or in its interior. In linewith the above,  asserts that the convex hull of a set
of points, denoted
) is the smallest polygon
forwhich each point of
is either on the boundary or in theinterior of
. Similarly,  establishes that the convex hullCH(P) of a finite point set P is the smallest convex poly-gon that contains P. Figure 3 below shows a convex hullP.
Figure 3: Convex Hull P
If each point is represented by a nail sticking out from aboard and you take a rubber band and lower it over thenails, so as to completely encompass the set of nails, andthen let the rubber band naturally contract, the rubberband will give you the edges of the convex hull of the setof points, and those nails that correspond to a change inslope of the rubber band represent the extreme points ofthe convex hull .
1.5 Convex Hull Problem
From the above definition it can thus be said that a con-vex hull problem is one where given a set of points orcoordinates one is asked to come up with the smallestpolygon in which all points are either inside or on theedge of the polygon.
1.6 Finding the convex hull using divide andconquer
Souvaine establishes that in order to find the convexhull using a divide-and-conquer approach, one has tofollow these steps:sort points (
, . . . , p
) by their x-coordinaterecursively find the convex hull of
recursively find the convex hull of
merge the two convex hullsA more detailed algorithm for finding a Convex Hull ispresented in . The algorithm is as follows:Hull(S) :If |S| <= 3, then compute the convex hull by brute forcein O(1) time and return.Otherwise, partition the point set S into two sets A and B,where A consists of half the points with the lowest x co-ordinates and B consists of half of the points with thehighest x coordinates.Recursively compute HA = Hull(A) and HB = Hull(B).Merge the two hulls into a common convex hull, H, bycomputing the upper and lower tangents for HA and HBand discarding all the points lying between these twotangents.
PPROACHES TO FINDING THE CONVEX HULL
There are two approaches to computing the convex hulland the approaches are here named approach A and ap-proach B. The next section explores these approaches ingreater detail beginning with approach A.
2.1 Approach A
This approach involves a number of steps which include,sorting the points, dividing the set of points into two sets,recursive computation of convex hulls for each subset ofpoints and merging the convex hulls. Below is a detailedexplanation of each of the above steps.
2.1.1 Sorting the points or coordinates
This involves sorting the points in increasing order oftheir
-coordinates with ties resolved by increasing orderof y coordinates. For example if one is given the followingset of points S: (2,12), (4,17), (10,19), (12,15), (15,19), (7,20),(18,20), (16,10), (18,2), (14,7), (20,11), (8,9), (4,6) and (9,1). Ifthese points are sorted according to be explanation givenabove, we end up with the following arrangement,P1(2,12), P2(4,6), P3(4,17), P4(7,20), P4(8,9), P6(9,1),P7(10,19), P8(12,15), P9(14,7), P10(15,19), P11(16,10),P12(18,2) , P13(18,20), and P14(20,11). The points areshown in the figure 4 below:
JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 5, ISSUE 3, MARCH 2013, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputingWWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG2