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2.BasicConcepts

# 2.BasicConcepts

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05/10/2014

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko
14
Basic Geophysical Concepts

Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko
15
where
ρ
density
K
bulk modulus = 1/compressibility
µ
shear modulus
λ
Lamé's coefficient
E
Young's modulus
ν
Poisson's ratioM P-wave modulus = K + (4/3)
µ
P wave velocityS wave velocityE wave velocityIn terms of Poisson's ratio we can also write:Relating various velocities:
Body wave velocities have form:
velocity
=
modulusdensity
Moduli from velocities:
µ
=
ρ
2
=
ρ
P
2
43

2

E
=
ρ
E
2
M
=
ρ
P
2
P
2
2
=
2 1
v
( )
(1
2
v
)
E
2
P
2
=
1
+
v
( )
(1
2
v
)(1
v
)
v
=
P
2
2
2
2(
P
2
2
)
=
E
2
2
2
2
2
P
2
2
=
4
E
2
2
3
E
2
2
E
2
2
=
3
P
2
2
4
P
2
2
1
P
=
+
(4 / 3)
µ
ρ
=
λ
+
2
µ
ρ
=
µ
ρ
E
=
E
ρ

Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko
16
Thereflection coefficientof a normally-incident P-wave on a boundary is given by:where
ρ
V is the acoustic impedance. Therefore,anything that causes a large contrast in impedancecan cause a large reflection. Candidates include:•Changes in lithology•Changes in porosity•Changes in saturation•Diagenesis
We usually quantify Rock Physics relations interms of
moduli and velocities
, but in the fieldwe might look for
travel time or Reflectivity
R
=
ρ
2
2
ρ
1
1
ρ
2
2
+
ρ
1
1
ρ
1
1
ρ
2
2