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Published by: adoptnegotiator on May 01, 2013
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Developing countries say no to reinterpretation of climate Convention
Bonn, 30 April (Meena Raman)
Developing countries made a strong call that the work of the Adhoc Working Group on the Durban Platform forEnhanced Action (ADP) of the United NationsFramework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) must not lead to a reinterpretation or arewriting of the Convention. They also stressed thatthe outcome must be in accordance with theobjective, principles and provisions of theConvention, including the principles of equity andcommon but differentiated responsibility andrespective capabilities (CBDRRC). This call was made by the G77 and China at theopening plenary of the second session of the ADP inBonn, Germany, that kicked off on April 29 and willmeet till 3 May.Parties agreed in Durban, South Africa, at the
meeting of the Conference of Parties(COP 17) to adopt a protocol, another legalinstrument or an agreed outcome with legal forceunder the Convention applicable to all Parties inDecember 2015, and for it to come into effect and beimplemented from 2020. At COP 18 in Doha, Qatarlast year, they also agreed that they will considerelements for a draft negotiating text no later than2014, with a view to making available a negotiating text before May 2015. Parties had also agreed to
“launch a workplan on enhancing mitigation
ambition to identify and to explore options for arange of actions that can close the ambition gap witha view to ensuring the highest possible mitigationeffort
s by all Parties”.
 The work under the ADP is being conducted under 2 workstreams. Workstream 1 relates to the new agreement to be concluded by 2015, while workstream 2 relates to the pre-2020 ambition. The ADP2 session was co-chaired by Jayant Mauskar(India) and Harald Dovland (Norway). Also presentat the opening session was Ms. Christiana Figueres,Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC, who remindedParties of the urgency needed in tackling climate
change, given that the world “is just about to cross
the 400 parts per million threshold of atmospheric
concentrations of CO2.
Mr. Amena Yauvoli of Fiji, speaking for
G77 andChina
said that the work of the ADP must be underthe Convention and should be based on its principlesand provisions related to commitments andresponsibilities with regard to mitigation, adaptationand means of implementation. He added that theprocess under the ADP must not lead to areinterpretation or a rewriting of the Convention; theoutcome must be in accordance with the objective,principles and provisions stipulated in theConvention, including the principles of equity andCBDRRC; the negotiations must be a party drivenprocess, and must be fully inclusive and transparent;the work should lead to a balanced, ambitious, fairand equitable outcome under the Convention; andprogress depends on following a balanced approachthat will include mitigation, adaptation and means of implementation, in accordance with the spirit of theConvention.In addition, the G77 and China applauded theamendments adopted in Doha in relation to thesecond commitment period of the Kyoto Protocoland said the efforts should now be focused onbringing those amendments into effect at the earliestopportunity. Fiji urged all Parties to undertake therelevant legal procedures necessary to bring theamendments into force as soon as possible. TheGroup was also of the view that the outcome of our work under the Durban Platform must enable us tofurther enhance the full, effective and sustainedimplementation of the Convention and strengthenthe multilateral rule-based regime in order for theConvention to achieve its ultimate objective.
TWN Bonn Update No. 1
30 April 2013
In relation to the pre-2020 ambition, the G77 saidthat any action should be guided by the objectivesand principles of the Convention. Given the urgency of our situation, the Group highlighted the need toincrease and expedite efforts to close the ambitiongap. In addressing this gap, focus must not only belimited to mitigation but also address gaps relating tofinance, technology and support for capacity building. Failure to address these gaps will not only have impact in the short term but will also haveprofound impact on the scale of commitment that would be required under the 2015 agreement, whichshould be guided by the principles and provisions of the Convention. In this connection, the Groupreiterated its call for developed countries to takeleadership and do more in the provision of the meansof implementation. The G77and China also said that this April session of the ADP should be utilised to build on the broad,conceptual and scoping discussions carried out lastyear and to that end will support efforts by Parties toengage in more specific and detailed work on thecore elements of the 2015 agreement and a practicaland result- orientated approach to increasing pre-2020 ambition. On the proposal by the two Co-Chairs to establish the contact group at this sessionof the ADP, the Group supported in principle itsestablishment under the two Co-Chairs to facilitate work and focus. The contact group would convene when necessary with the agreement of the Parties,said the G77 and China.
for the
 Africa Group
viewed the work of the ADP in the context of reassurances amongstParties, where implementation of the Conventionbeyond 2020 was agreed to on the basis of mitigation, finance, technology commitments by developed countries. It said that the mitigation andfinance gaps and lack of clear support for adaptationpre 2020 is of concern to Africa. Addressing theseconcerns will build the necessary trust as we focusour work on the 2015 agreement.In respect of the 2015 agreement, it reiterated its view that all the principles and provisions of theConvention apply; as such there should be norenegotiation of the Convention and its annexes.Further, Swaziland wanted the setting of anadaptation goal and an expression of such a goal inthe 2015 agreement, including support for mitigationand adaptation in developing countries. On the pre-2020 ambition, the Group was committed tobridging the gap towards the achievement of theagreed 2
Celsius goal to be reviewed towards 1.5
Cstarting this year. Referring to the emissions gap of 8-13Gt of CO
it said that global mitigation effortsshould be undertaken and there should be effectivedelivery of the USD 100 billion dollars per year by 2020. It called for the monetization of the emissionsgap and provision of incremental finance to supportdeveloping countries new and supplementary mitigation actions would build the confidence andtrust in the system. The Africa Group was concerned over theinadequacy of aggregate developed country pledges,and the lack of visibility and transparency on scalableand accessible means of implementation toincentivize and enhance developing countriescontribution to ambition. It was of the view that the workplan of the ADP will benefit from progress inthe implementation of commitments and decisionsunder the Bali Road Map and called to facilitatelinkages with the work of the subsidiary bodies underthe Convention. On international cooperativeactions, it stressed the importance of transparency and accounting provisions under the Convention soas to ensure the environmental integrity of suchinitiatives and building confidence in the multilateralsystem. It wanted transparency and recognition of such efforts through a reflection of the expectedemission reduction outcome, sectors or gas coverage,accounting assumptions and methodologies, andlevel of support pledged and provided.
, speaking for the
 Alliance of Small-IslandStates (AOSIS)
said that time to act is rapidly slipping way and urgent and dramatic action in nextfew years before 2020 is needed to avoid catastrophiceffects. It stressed that failure to close ambition gaphas implications for workstream 1. AOSIS wanted tosee two distinct contact groups for both the workstreams as the subject matter was separate. On workstream 1, it said that on the core elements of theagreement, decisions must be guided by the scienceand build on the foundations of the Convention. Itcalled for a protocol under the Convention, which isguided by its principles and applicable to all withcontributions from all Parties. It also stressed theneed for financial resources and technology transfer.
for the
also called for two contactgroups for the respective workstreams of the ADP. Itsaid that under workstream1, there is need to definethe structure and content of the agreement based onrobust science based and an equitable regime. Itstressed the importance of the CBDR principle, withdifferent and evolving capabilities and noting futuretrends. It said that elements for the future regimeshould include for mitigation, finance, technology transfer, and capacity building, and transparency of action. It called for a closure of the gaps inimplementation. Nepal also stressed the importanceof adaptation for LDCs and other vulnerablecountries which should be further enhanced. It said
TWN Bonn Update No. 1
30 April 2013
that mitigation is best form of adaption. As regards workstream 2, it called for the closure of themitigation gap and wanted progress on pre 2020ambition, as this will affect the post 2020 ambition. Itcalled on developed countries to take the lead.
, speaking for the
Like-MindedDeveloping Countries on Climate Change(LMDC)
said that the LMDC countries have acombined population of 3.5 billion. Within itsborders live more than 1.54 billion people whosurvive on incomes that are below the internationalpoverty line of US$2 a day. Around 900 million morepeople in developing and least-developed countriesalso survive on less than $2 a day. This means thatmore than two-and-a-half billion people survive ondaily incomes that are less than what each cow inmany developed countries receives in farm subsidieseach day, which is clearly unjust and inequitable. The LMDC highlighted the common challenge of poverty eradication and development that developing and least-developed countries, have faced andcontinue to face from 1992 to the present-day. Likeother developing countries, its economies are stilldeveloping and so are fragile and vulnerable to theimpacts and costs of climate change actions. Hence,as affirmed in the Convention, responses to climatechange should be coordinated with social andeconomic development in an integrated manner witha view to avoiding adverse impacts on the latter,taking into full account the legitimate priority needsof developing countries for the achievement of sustained economic growth and the eradication of poverty, added Nicaragua.Nicaragua reminded that all Parties acknowledgedthat the largest share of historical global emissions of greenhouse gases originated in developed countriesand that, owing to this historical responsibility,developed country Parties must take the lead incombating climate change and the adverse effectsthereof. However, the extent to which Annex 1Parties have fulfilled their commitments under theConvention has not been adequate, resulting insteadin major implementation gaps for the Convention.On the other hand, many developing and least-developed countries, are undertaking and investing heavily, in most cases using mainly their owndomestic resources, in domestic climate mitigationand adaptation actions. These actions could havebeen further enhanced ha
d Annex II Parties’
commitments under the Convention to providefinancing and technology transfer to developing countries been fulfilled. The LMDC said the work of the ADP is to ensurethe full and effective implementation of theConvention in the period both before and after 2020. This must build on the work that has already beentaking place and ensure that all parts of the packageconstituting the outcome under the Bali Road Map,including the agreed outcome under the Bali ActionPlan and the adoption of the amendment to Annex Bof the Kyoto Protocol for a 2
commitment period, will be effectively and fully implemented now, up toand beyond 2020. The urgent task of implementation of the decisions already taken underthe Convention, in particular those relating to theoperationalization of the mechanisms set up to assistthe actions of developing countries is a key priority and must receive equal emphasis in the work of theParties going forward.It stressed the negotiations and the outcome shall beguided by and must be consistent with the principlesand provisions of the Convention, especially theprinciples of equity and CBDR. These principles of the Convention and the provisions and structure thatreflect and apply these principles are at thefoundation of the work of the ADP. The ADPnegotiations must not replace, rewrite, restructure,renegotiate, nor reinterpret the Convention and itsprinciples, provisions, and structure, addedNicaragua.It wanted the work under workstream 1 to link to,build on and be informed by the work of thesubsidiary and other relevant bodies. It stressed alsothat work of the ADP in workstream 1 must addressas essential elements of any outcome of its work allof the Convention building blocks of adaptation,mitigation, finance, technology transfer, and capacity building, as well as forest activities, responsemeasures, economic diversification and resilience,loss and damage, and transparency and complianceissues, as substantive issues that need to be addressedin an operational, effective, and adequate manner. The actions to address climate change must becomprehensive and also address sinks and all gasesand sectors.For workstream 2, the LMDC looked forward to aresult in which developed countries build trust, show good faith, and take the lead in addressing climatechange by implementing the Doha package andshowing enhanced mitigation ambition in the pre-2020 period. It emphasized that increasing pre-2020ambition shall primarily be achieved through theimplementation of the 2nd commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (KP) and the outcome of the Bali Action Plan in a comprehensive manner, covering mitigation, adaptation and finance and technology support. This could be done through Annex I KPParties immediately ratifying the amendment to theKP for the 2
commitment period during 2013 and

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