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li-fi.pdf

li-fi.pdf

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: muthya123 on May 01, 2013
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07/28/2013

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INTRODUCTION
 WHAT IS LI-FI?
Li-Fi is a VLC, visible light communication, technology developed by ateam of scientists including Dr Gordon Povey, Prof. Harald Haas and Dr MostafaAfgani at the University of Edinburgh. The term Li-Fi was coined by Prof. Haaswhen he amazed people by streaming high-definition video from a standardLED lamp, at TED Global in July 2011. Li-Fi is now part of the Visible Light
Communications (VLC) PAN IEEE 802.15.7 standard.“Li
-Fi is typicallyimplemented using white LED light bulbs. These devices are normally used forillumination by applying a constant current through the LED. However, by fastand subtle variations of the current, the optical output can be made to vary atextremely high speeds. Unseen by the human eye, this variation is used to carryhigh-s
peed data, “says Dr Povey, , Product Manager of the University of
Edinburgh's Li-
Fi Program „D
-
Light Project‟.In simple terms, Li
-Fi can be thoughtof as a light-based Wi-Fi. That is, it uses light instead of radio waves to transmitinformation. And instead of Wi-Fi modems, Li-Fi would use transceiver-fittedLED lamps that can light a room as well as transmit and receive information.Since simple light bulbs are used, there can technically be any number of accesspoints. This technology uses a part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is stillnot greatly utilized- The Visible Spectrum. Light is in fact very much part of ourlives for millions and millions of years and does not have any major ill effect.Moreover there is 10,000 times more space available in this spectrum and justcounting on the bulbs in use, it also multiplies to 10,000 times more availability
 
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as an infrastructure; globally. It is possible to encode data in the light by varyingthe rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s.The LED intensity is modulated so rapidly that human eyes cannot notice, so theoutput appears constant.More sophisticated techniques could dramaticallyincrease VLC data rates. Teams at the University of Oxford and the University ofEdinburgh are focusing on parallel data transmission using arrays of LEDs,where each LED transmits a different data stream. Other groups are usingmixtures of red, green and blue LEDs to alter the light's frequency, with eachfrequency encoding a different data channel.Li-Fi, as it has been dubbed, hasalready achieved blisteringly high speeds in the lab. Researchers at the HeinrichHertz Institute in Berlin, Germany, have reached data rates of over 500megabytes per second using a standard white-light LED. Haas has set up a spin-off firm to sell a consumer VLC transmitter that is due for launch next year. It iscapable of transmitting data at 100 MB/s - faster than most UK broadbandconnections.
 
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GENESIS OF LI-FI
 
DR. Harald Hass, at TED Talks July 2011Harald Haas, a professor at the University of Edinburgh who began his researchin the field in 2004, gave a debut demonstration of what he called a Li-Fiprototype at the TEDGlobal conference in Edinburgh on 12th July 2011. He useda table lamp with an LED bulb to transmit a video of blooming flowers that wasthen projected onto a screen behind him. During the event he periodicallyblocked the light from lamp to prove that the lamp was indeed the source ofincoming data. At TEDGlobal, Haas demonstrated a data rate of transmission ofaround 10Mbps -- comparable to a fairly good UK broadband connection. Twomonths later he achieved 123Mbps.

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