The Contribution of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoroin the Development of Larkana & Kamber Shahdadkot Districts of NorthSindh-Pakistan
(A Socio-Political, Economic, Cultural and Architectural Review)By Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi
In this Research Paper, there is the description of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro (1722-1772 AD) and hiscontribution in the development of Larkana, Kamber, Shahdadkot & Miro Khan Regions. His role is alsodescribed in bringing peace in the district as it was badly destroyed by the Khosas. His works of restoration Ghar Wah, Koor Dato and Noor Wah and construction of tombs of Mian Ilyas Muhammad Kalhoro, Mian ShahalMuhammad Kalhoro, Mian Shah Baharo and Kot Ghulam Shah are also briefly discussed. Such kind of ResearchMaterial on the life, works and achievements of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro specifically in the Region of Larkana and Kamber Shahdadkot is accumulated for the first time in the History of Sindh.
Rise of Kalhora Power in Chandookah / Larkana district of Upper Sindh
The Larkana District proved a source of wealth to the Kalhora Rulers of Sindh. The extreme length of Chandookah or Larkana District in AD 1847 was 65 miles, and its average breadth 35. It was divided into 19minor divisions or Tappas. These Tappas were 1) Bukapoor 2) Myl Lahory 3) Anderoonee Beerah 4) Lab Dariya5) Anderoon Ghar 6) Futtehpoor 7) Nya Derah 8) Ruttah Derah 9) Nalah Maqsoodah 10) Myl Morady11) MylWagun 12) Warah 13) Khyrah Guchul 14) Beroonee Beerah 15) Kumber Kundee 16) Chujrah 17) Esaw 18)Datah Kohawur and 19) Shahpoor. The total number of villages in the Larkana District was 392. The districtcame under the control of Talpur Amirs of Sindh in 1783 AD.Larkana District produced annually 1, 25,000 Rupees share to the Amirs of Sindh in 1835, 1836 & 1837 A.D. Itis why it was called Eden of Sindh (Lieutenant Robert Leech 1837). Larkana has grown up gradually on the right bank of Ghar Wah, dug during the days of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro. According t to Walter Hamilton(1820) CHANDOOKEE-
A district, subject to the Ameers of Sinde, situated about the 27
degree of northlatitude, and during the floods completely insulated by the Indus, the Arul, and the Larkhanu Rivers, forming an Island of triangular shape, which is reckoned the most productive in the province, and in 1813, was said to yield a revenue of 8 lacks of rupees”
. (Page.570). He again writes that,
“The Ameers of Sinde here levy tolls onmerchants entering their dominions from the north-west, and maintain a garrison to restrain the Baloochees of Cutch Gundava”.
(A Geographical, Statistical and Historical Description of Hindostan and the AdjacentCountries, By Walter Hamilton, Vol: I, London 1820 AD. Page 571)Generally the nature of this part of country was divided into three portions; 1) that to the north of Ghar Wah 2)the country between the Ghar Wah and the Nara and 3) that lying between the latter and the Indus River. Landsaround Kamber, Chilo, Noor Wah, Esaw Kalhoro and Koor Dato produced finest crops in the district. The roadsfrom Larkana led to Kamber, Shahdadkot, Dost Ali, Ghaibi Dero, Bahram, Qubo Saeed Khan, Garhi Khero, JhallMagsi, Gandava, Bhag, Shoran, Dhadhar & Sibi. Among them Dost Ali, Ghaibi Dero and Shahdadkot were the places where caravans assembled to cross the desert to go to the Kalat, Iran and Afghanistan in northward. Thesewere trade as well as military routes between Sindh and the abovementioned countries.Main Adam Shah Kalhoro is said to be founder of Mianwal Movement in Sindh. The Nawab of Bakkhar and thegovernor of Multan arrested him from Chandookah / Larkana and killed him as a rebel in AD 1600. Mian AdamShah Kalhoro had two sons Mian Daud Kalhoro and Mian Ibrahim Kalhoro. Agha Shah Muhammad Kotwal andhis disciples selected Mian Daud Kalhoro as their new leader. He left behind two sons Main Ilyas MuhammadKalhoro and Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro. Rohel Khan Khoso was disciple of Mian Ilyas MuhammadKalhoro (1620 A.D). He migrated from Dera Ghazi Khan (Punjab) and settled in Larkana, Sindh. After the deathof Mian Ilyas Muhammad Kalhoro all his disciples made Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro as their new spiritualguide. Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro took over the lands of Abro and Sangi tribes and in retaliation waskilled in the uprising by Nawab Sheikh Ahmed Bakhri in 1657 AD. The shrine of Mian Shahal MuhammadKalhoro is situated on a high mound 8 km to the north-east of Kamber. Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro dug