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Published by: Jaime Andres Rincon Arango on May 02, 2013
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11/04/2013

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Motion Reconstruction Using and Inertial Measuring Unit andAccelerometer Data
Jaime Andres Rincon Aranagoe-mail: jairinar@posgrado.upv.es, jarain78@gmail.comJune 22, 2012
Abstract:
The motion capture using inercial measure units (IMU) and development system ARDUINO MEGA that allow the reconstruction of the movement in a 3D environment , is proposed in this paper. The 3D accelerometers output (Volts)has become in gravit units (g) for the accelerometer and degrees per second (g/s) for the gyroscope by an analogue digital converter(ADC) of 10 bits.With these values can be calculated the angles of inclination of the object, then sent them by radio frequency to the computer across a module of communication xbee and received them using the software PROCESSING. My approach relies in build up the object as 3D solid with the OPENGLtool and with the already processed information make the reconstruction of the movement. Thiprocedure can be made in online modality in which the movements of the object are represented in real time.
Keywords: Acelerometro, Gyroscopio
1 INTRODUCTION
The increasing availability and demand of high-quality motion capture (mocap) data has becomea driving force for the development of data-drivenmethods in computer animation and mostly dueto the increasing market of the video games andmovies. ; In this paper I propose the motioncapture using accelerometer and gyroscopes knowsas IMU (Inertial measurement unit) together withARDUINO MEGA tries to reduce the costs butwithout harming the capture precision.
2 RELATED WORK
For the motion capture is commonly used technol-ogy of optical type with multi cameras [1], the prob-lem is its high cost and complex controlled infras-tructure; another method is the using accelerome-ters accompanied of gyroscopes to calculate the an-gles produced by the movement of the actor. Thismethod allows to place the sensors to the actor andwhen he executes the movements, the sensors cap-ture them to be reconstructed.
3 MOTION CAPTURINGAND REAL TIME PRO-CESSING DATA
I use Two accelerometers and a gyroscope whichprovide the control input to reconstruction frame-work. The sensors were attached to the lower armnext to the wrist. The accelerometer allows meto measure the acceleration of the arm when itmoves, this acceleration captured by the sensordoes not come in volts, to obtain them
g
it isnecessary to realize a process to turn this voltagein
g
, this conversion to
g
is necessary to do for theaxis “X”equation 1, axis “Y” equation 2 and axis“Z” equation 3 [starlino,1][Paul D,4].
V oltA
=
ADC 
1
V cc
1023(1)
V oltB
=
ADC 
2
V cc
1023(2)
V oltC 
=
ADC 
3
V cc
1023(3)where:
ADC 
1
,
ADC 
2
,
ADC 
3
:
are the values of analogue digital convertion (ADC), of each sensor(Accelerometer and gyroscope)
VoltA, VoltB, VoltC :
Voltages of the sen-sors outputs1
 
Constant 1023
: 2
10
Having the voltages corresponding to everysensor, it is necessary to reduce
VzeroG 
,every ac-celerometer has
VzeroG 
, and it can be found in theaccelerometers data sheet, for my accelerometers
VzeroG = 1.65 V 
; having
VzeroG 
and the voltageof every Axis, they are reduced to obtain the deltaof V, since is shows in the Equation 4,5,6.
DeltaV oltsRx
=
V oltA
–1
.
65
(4)
DeltaV oltsRy
=
V oltB
–1
.
65
(5)
DeltaV oltsRz
=
voltC 
–1
.
65
(6)Having the Delta-V and knowing the sensibili-dad, which is also give it by the manufacturer Ican obtain them
g
that the sensor is capturing,using the Equations 7,8,9.
Rx
=
DeltaV oltsRx/
0
.
4785
V/g
(7)
Ry
=
DeltaV oltsRy/
0
.
4785
V/g
(8)
Rz
=
DeltaV oltsRz/
0
.
4785
V/g
(9)With this I have obtained three componentsshowed in the figure 1.Figure 1: Component of the Inercial Vector Force,[starlino,3]Having the componentes of the force, I calculatethe vector
R
, using the equation 10
R
=
 
Rx
2
+
Ry
2
+
Rz
2
(10)Having the vector calculated already
R
now I cancalculate the angles
Axr
,
Ayr
and
Azr
, equations11,12 and 13.
Axr
= arccos
RxR
(11)
Ayr
= arccos
RyR
(12)
Azr
= arccos
RzR
(13)This process is realized for both accelerometers.Having the angles calculated of each one now I cancalculate the angle of the gyroscope.The gyroscope allows me to measure
degs
, this gy-roscope of three axes captures the movement in X,Y and Z, this sensor and one of the accelerometershas been located in the joint of the arm and thewrist.To calculate them
degs
it is needed to know thesensibility of the gyroscopio, for this I use sensordata sheet and know that the above mentionedvalue is of 
0.002V/deg/s
now I proceed to dothe calculations.
RateGyro
=
V alue
A
DC 
ResADC 
360
ResADC 
V aref Sencivilidad
(14)In the figure 2 the vector corresponding to the gy-roscope appears.Now already I have calculated the angles of theaccelerometer and of the gyroscope. Now I proceedto integrate them to obtain the estimation of theangle in which finds the arm, to do this estimationI use a filter
Kalman
[4, p´ag. 269], this allows todetermine the angle and eliminates the noise.In the figure 3, we can observe the sign obtained of the movement of the arm without the Kalman filterand sign peaks which provide wrong movements tothe 3D model.In the figure 4 the movement appears but nowwith a filter kalman, notice that there are not peaksand the sign is alike a senosoidal sign.2
 
Figure 2: Component of the Inercial Vector Force,[starlino,3]Figure 3: Sign without kalman filterFigure 4: Sign with kalman filter
4 MOTION RECONSTRUC-TION
For the motion reconstruction, I use the programProcessing
1
in which the reconstruction of the
1
http: // processing.org/
movements was done and as 3D bookshop I useOpengl
2
, to do the reconstruction.The values of angles were sent by serial portcommunication to the computer. Using processingthe serial port was readed and the data separationsince ARDUINO MEGA sends the information thefollowing form:
actAngleAnteBrazoX 
!
actAngleAnteBrazoY 
[
actAngleAnteBrazoZ 
@
actAngleBrazoX /actAngle
B
razo
|
actAngle
B
razo
(
interval
]Where the special characters serve as dividersbetween data.Having already the separated angles they aresaved in a text file to be reproduced then. Forthe reproduction of the movements it is necessaryto have two variables: Angle and Time; with this Ireproduce the capture as a movie.I design an arm with opengl and using the func-tion gluCylinder I built a cylinder, then is madean adjournment of coordinates with the end thatthe top part of the arm (shoulder) stays in a fixedpoint and the forearm moves to the low part of thearm (elbow); having already the arm and forearmlocated and with the angles captured by the sen-sors it get in the counterfoil of 3D rotation, withthe function of openg glRotatef (XCodo, 1.0, 0.0,0.0), this function rotates on the axis X the anglethat the variable Xcodo has, other two axes are notused, since biomechanically the elbow turns in oneaxis.
5 RESULTS
The reconstruction obtained by the system appearslater, in the figure 5 and 6.Figure 5: Sign with kalman filter
2
http: // www.opengl.org/
3

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