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Czech Grammar

Czech Grammar

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Published by melitenes
Czech language grammar
Czech language grammar

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Published by: melitenes on Apr 04, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/04/2013

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Czech
byLaura A. JandaandCharles E. Townsend
 
ii
 
iiiTable of Contents
0. Socio- and geolinguistic situation
..............................................................10.1 Location and number of speakers...................................................................................10.2 Relation of Czech to other languages.............................................................................10.3 Dialectology...................................................................................................................10.4 Diglossia........................................................................................................................4
1. Phonology
................................................................................................................51.1 Phonemes and alphabet..................................................................................................5Alphabet........................................................................................................................5Vowels..........................................................................................................................6The liquids
r
and
l
.........................................................................................................7Consonants...................................................................................................................71.2 Phonological rules..........................................................................................................8Stress............................................................................................................................8Glottal stop....................................................................................................................9Voicing phenomena ...................................................................................................10Consonant clusters......................................................................................................10Vowel epenthesis........................................................................................................11Phonology of Colloquial Czech..................................................................................11
2. Morphology
..........................................................................................................132.1 Inflectional morphology...............................................................................................132.1.0 Morphophonemic alternations in inflection...............................................................13Vowel-zero alternations .............................................................................................13Qualitative vowel alternations.....................................................................................13Quantitative vowel alternations...................................................................................13Type 1 (Òhalf-softeningÓ) consonant alternations........................................................14Type 2 (Òfull-softeningÓ) consonant alternations.........................................................14Isolated and suppletive types.......................................................................................152.1.1 Noun morphology.....................................................................................................152.1.1.1 Masculine paradigms.............................................................................................15Hard stems..................................................................................................................15Inanimate:
rozbor
Ôanalysi.......................................................................................15Animate:
bratr
ÔbrotherÕ.............................................................................................15Animacy .....................................................................................................................16Soft stems...................................................................................................................17Inanimate:
ko£ 
ÔbasketÕ................................................................................................17Animate:
mal’¤ 
ÔpainterÕ..............................................................................................17Stems alternating between hard and soft.....................................................................17
kotel
ÔcauldronÕ...........................................................................................................17Special types...............................................................................................................17
-a
virile:
 p¤ednosta
Ôchief, headÕ.................................................................................18
-e
virile:
zachr‡nce
ÔsaviorÕ........................................................................................182.1.1.2 Neuter paradigms...................................................................................................18Hard stems..................................................................................................................19
m«sto
ÔcityÕ.................................................................................................................19

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