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Atharva Veda

Atharva Veda

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Published by Arun Kumar Upadhyay
Structure of Atharva veda as the root veda
Structure of Atharva veda as the root veda

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Published by: Arun Kumar Upadhyay on May 04, 2013
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1
Atharva Veda-nature classification
-Arun Kumar Upadhyay, (M) 09437034172 arunupadhyay30@yahoo.in 
1.
Vidyā and Mahāvidyā
-
Vidyā is śruti (= hearing), i.e. perception from outside by ‘puruṣa’. ‘Mahar’ is surrounding of ‘pura’ (any structure, town) in which puruṣa dwells. Mahāvidyā is,
thus, perception by mahar or effect on it by actions of puru
a. Original reference background or Brahma is atharva (tharva = shaking, atharva = tranquil).
From this, 3 steps of śruti
-(1) form of a body, (2) coming of information and (3) knowledge-give rise to 3 vedas-
Ṛk, Yaju, Sāma. For creation as a
 whole-form, motion, field of influence
(sāma) of 
 body in which it can be perceived are-
Ṛk, yajur, sāma. These are called
-agni
(condensed form or energy, fire), vāyu (air, motion), and ravi (=
 sun, its field of light)-also. Four meanings of root verb
vid  
 correspond to 4
vedas 
 - Element Veda Meaning of Vid P
āṇ
ini dh
ā
tup
āṭ
ha Form
k Exist (4/60) Motion Yaju Gain (6/141) Knowledge
Sāma Know
 (2/57) Background Atharva Consider, place of thought (7/13, 10/177)
 
  
 
  
-
 
 
 
 (
/
६०
)
 
 
 
 (
/
१४१
),
 
 
 
 (
/
५७
),
 
 
 
 (
/
१३
),
 
 
   
 
  
 (
१०
/
१७७
)
 ऋयो 
 
 जता
 
 सवशो 
 
 मू  मु
,
 सव
 
 गतयव ज षी 
 
 है  
 
शत्
 
 
 सं
 
 ते जा
 
 समया
 
 ह 
 
शत्
,
 सं
 
 हे दा
 
 ण 
 
 है  
 
 सृ म्
 
 (
 तै रीय 
 
 ण 
 
/
१२
/
/
)
All forms are from Ŗk, all motion from Yajuş (or Yajur), all field of influence is Sāma, the
complete is created by Brahma (Atharva).
2. Nature of Veda
-Veda is the real world or its representation in words. Parallel link between world & word is called V
ā
k-artha-pratipatti (1)
 गथव  
 
 सपृ ौ 
 
 गथव
 
 तपये
,
 जगतु
 
 पतरौ 
 
 दे
 
 पव ती 
 
 परमेरौ॥
 (Raghuvam
ś
a 1/1)
 
(2)
अनदनधना
 
  
 
शदता
 
 नरनम्
 
 
 व तेऽथवभे न 
 
 य 
 
 जगतो 
 
 यतु
 
 (
 यपदीय 
)
 
2
Śabda (sound or Vedas) is Nirañjana (non
- attached), eternal. The whole world is running with the artha (meaning, or
form) of this śabda only.
 
) (3)
 च 
 
 ै
 
 े दु
 
 सधीयते
,
 च 
 
 मण 
 
 सदधत 
,
 च 
 
 सव ण 
 
भू  तन 
 
 
अथो 
 
 गे े दा
 
 सव म्
 
 (
 ऐतरेय 
 
आरयक 
 
/
/
) =
From Vāk (word) only Vedas are created, chhanda (meter) and mitra
(friends) also are joined by words. All beings are joined through word. So word is all. Mu
ṇḍ
akopani
ad (1/1/1-5) tells that Brahm
ā
 was first among Devas who established world-order & its protector. He explained Brahma-vidy
ā
 as foundation of all knowledge to his eldest son Atharv
ā
. Later on, it branched into Par 
ā
 (unification) & Apar 
ā
 (classification) vidy
ā
s, out of which Apar 
ā
 was classified into 4 vedas and 6 angas.
  
 
 दे ना
 
 थमा
 
 सबभू   
,
 य 
 
 कव
 
भ नय 
 
 गो।
 
 स 
 
  
 
 सव  
 
 तमथव य 
 
 ये प य 
 
 ह॥१॥
 
 े
 
 े
 
 े दते
,
 इत 
 
 ह 
 
 म 
 
 यद्
 
 दो 
 
 दत 
,
 पर 
 
 चै  
 
अपर 
 
 च 
(
)
 
 तपर 
 
 ऋे दो 
 
 यज  द 
:,
 समे दो 
,
अथव े द 
:,
 श 
,
 कपो 
,
 करणा
,
 न
,
 छदो 
 
 योतषमत।
 
अथ 
 
 पर 
 
 यय 
 
 तदरमधगयते
(
)-
 म डकोपनषद्
 (
/
)
 
Veda is the real world or its following aspects-(1) Infinite information content (
vijñāna
) which led to creation (2) Process of creation (
yajña
), (3) Perception process and its stages, (4) Structure of world (veda-
puruşa
)-structure is called pura, its dweller is
puruşa
, (5) Different zones called
agni, vāyu, ravi
 of space, (6) Chain of creation and dissolution (7) Elements or their qualities etc.
 
(1)
 एष 
 
 े दो 
 
 कमव
 
 महम 
 
 सद 
 
 जनना
 
 दये
 
 सु
 
 (
े ततर 
 
 उपनषद्
 
/
१७
) This veda (alternate reading-deva) is
called Viśvakarmā (creator of world), Mahātmā
(universal soul), and is always present within hearts of all beings.
 (2)
 े दो 
 
 नरयणु
 
 सत्
 
 यभू  रत 
 
श मु
 
 (
 ण
 
 मृ त 
)
We have heard from chain of sages that Veda is himself Nārāyaŋa and Svayambhū.
 (3)
 चत व यं
 
 यो 
 
 लोकरमु
 
 पृथक
 
 
भू  ता
 
भा
 
भै  
 
 सं
 
 े दत्
 
 सयत 
 
 (
 मन
 
 मृ त 
,
१२
/
९७
) 4 classes of men, 3 lokas (spaces), and 4 stages of human life, past, present and future creation-all arise from Vedas. (4)
शदु
 
 पशव 
 
 प 
 
 रसो 
 
 गध 
 
 पञमु
 
 
 े ददे  
 
 सू  यते
 
 सू  त 
 
 ग णकमव तु॥
 (
 मन
 
 मृ त 
,
१२
/
९८
)  All five elements are created from Vedas only as per function and quality-
śabda (sound), sparśa (touch), rūpa (form), rasa (taste), gandha (smell).
 (5)
अ 
 
 य
 
 रयत
 
 या
 
  
 
 सनतनम्
 
 
 द दोह 
 
 यसयथव मृ यज
 
 सम 
 
 लणम्
 
 (
 मन मृ त 
,
/
२३
)
For progress of yajña (creation), the eternal Brahma (root veda) in form of Ataharva (= un
-shaking or un-changing) extracted symptoms of 3 vedas-
Ŗk, Yajur, Sāma from Agni (fire, earth, first born or leader), Vāyu (air, motion, intermediary), and Ravi (field of sun or its light,
influence). (6)
 तमत्
 
 सव त 
 
 ऋचु
 
 समन 
 
 जर
 
। छदा स 
 
 जरे
 
 तमज तमदजयत 
 
 (
 जसने यी 
 
 यज
 
३१
)
 
3
From that sarvahuta (everything consumed) yajña, Ŗk and Sāma were created. From that
Chhandas (partitions, meter of poetry, Atharva-veda) were created. Yaju (creation process, conscious being) was created from that. (7)
 एा
 
  
 
अरेऽय 
 
 महतो 
 
भू  तय 
 
 नुसतमे तदृ े दो 
 
 यज  दु
 
 समे दोऽथव गरस 
 
 इतहस 
 
 प रण 
 
  
 
 उपनषदु
 
ोकु
 
 सू  यन यनन 
 
 यनन 
 
अयै ै तन 
 
 नुसतन 
 
 (
 बृ हदरयक 
 
 उपनषद्
 
/
/
१०
) =
From the breath of that Great Being are Ŗgveda, Yajurveda, Sāmaveda, Atharva
-
āngirasa, Itihāsa (history), Purāṇa (sequence and cause of creation), Vidyā (techniques), Upanişads (principles), Ślokas (praise or description of beings), Sūtra (aphorims), Vyākhyāna (lecture),
 Anu-
vyākhyāna (supplementary explanations). All these are His
 breath only. Veda in word form is replica of veda as world, that is dev
 ī 
 (feminine)- (1)
 े
 
 णी 
 
 े दते
 
शद 
 
 परा
 
 च 
 
 यत्
 
 
शदे
 
 ण 
 
 नणतु
 
 परा धगछत 
 
 (
 मै यणी 
 
 उपनषद्
 
/
२२
) = Two forms of Brahma are known-one is word, another is beyond that (world). Person thorough in word form reaches supreme Brahma. (2)
शदमका
 
 स मलयव ज षा
 
 नधनम ीथ 
 
 रय 
 
 पदपठता
 
 च 
 
 सम्
 
 
 दे ी 
 
 यी 
 
भगती 
 
भभनय 
 
 तव
 
 च 
 
 सव
 
 जगता
 
 परमतही 
 
 (
 द गव
 
 सशती 
 
/
१०
) =
Devī (goddess) is in word form consisting of pure Ŗk, Yajur, sonorous chanting of Sāma from udgītha (start) to nidhāna. Devī is three
-veda, all-
powerful, influencing Bhava (Śiva),
talk among whole world and destroyer of sorrows.
 (3)
 दे  
 
 चमजनयत 
 
 दे ु॥
 (
 ऋे द 
 
/
१००
/
११
,
 तै रीय 
 
 ण 
 
/
/
/
१०
,
 न 
 
११
/
२९
) = Devas created Dev
 ī 
 as V
ā
k (word).
 
3. Some pairs of Atharva
- Atharva itself is divided into two parts in various ways- (1) Aum and Atha-These were the two words which were used first by Brahm
ā
-
 ॎकरथ शद े तौ णु प र। कभ नय तौ तमन् मगलकमौ॥ (नरद प रण ५१/१०)
 
Atha means starting base or foundation. So the root single veda is called Atharva. Some uses of word ‘atha, ‘ath
ā
’, ‘ath
ā
pi’ are given below
-
 
 
  
 
  
 
  
 (
 
 
/
१०९
/
,
   
 
 
.
/
/
१४
/
,
  
 
/
)
 
 
 
 
   
 

 (

 
२०
/
१३०
/
१९
),
 
 
  
 (

 
२०
/
१३६
/
,
)
 अथ 
 
 दे  
 
 दधर
 
 हहम्
 (
 ऋे द 
 
/
११
/
,
१०
/
५२
/
,
 न 
 
/
३५
)
 अथव त्
 
 योतषय 
 
 दै े न 
 (
 ऋे द 
 
१०
/
८७
/
१२
,
अथव
 
/
/
२१
),
 यभपला
 
धनसमथव म्
 (
 ऋे द 
 
/
११२
/
१०
)
Aum is atart as well as classification. Its root is Vindu (dot) which indicates vacuum or uncreated universe. There are 9 stages of creation, called Saga. Bh
ā
gavata pur 
āṇ
a counts 10 sargas including the abstract source. For each of 9 stages, spread of source matter is like water (Ap), created matter within boundaries is Bh
ū
 (the verb means
-
to exist) or earth. Intermediate stages are clouds (mixture of air, water) or boar (amphibian animal of land and water). Var 
ā
ha means both cloud and boar. For 9 stages, there are 9 clouds (Bible,

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