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Published by alexiazj
Notes on grain as a resource
Notes on grain as a resource

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Published by: alexiazj on Apr 04, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Alexia, Ronald, Pardis
The seed heads of grass plants
Also called cereal
3 parts: endosperm (starchy interior), bran (coating), embryo
Major categories (from most widely produced to least widely produced): corn,rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, oats, millets, rye, canolaProduction
Cyclical farming: grains are planted one season, and harvested another season
Grains are sown into land (e.g. fields, flooded plains)
Pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers might be used
Irrigation used to water crops
When the grain grows and ripens, it is harvested (by machine or by hand)
Chaff, husk and straw removedProcessing
Milling: grain is cleaned, bran is removed, grain is passed through rollers to grindit and it becomes flour 
Fermentation: carbohydrates are turned into ethanol or alcoholSpatial diffusion of producers
Produced everywhere in the world
Major producers are the U.S., China, India, Indonesia, E.U.
Major exporters are the U.S., Canada and the E.U.
Developed countries export the most grainUses
Breads made from flour 
Other edible grain products (e.g. oatmeal, breakfast cereal, rice)
Cooking oils
Ethanol fuel from corn
Livestock feed (1/3 used for this purpose)
Industry (e.g. starch, cosmetics, drugs, explosives, pastes)
Alcohol (through fermentation)Spatial diffusion of consumers
Consumed widely in each country
Major importers are Asia (especially China and Japan) and Africa
Developing countries import the most grainConcerns
Farmers reliant on weather, so poor weather and droughts cause a low yield
There are fewer farmers due to urbanization
Dangers of pesticides and herbicides on the environment
Overfarming causes soil erosion
There is less arable land due to climate change

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