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Development notes

Development notes

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Published by alexiazj
Notes on developments, and some answers to questions from a textbook. By Alexia.
Notes on developments, and some answers to questions from a textbook. By Alexia.

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Published by: alexiazj on Apr 04, 2009
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06/16/2009

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Development – Chapter 5Page 96 – 124
By: Alexia JablonskiStudent Number: 465699Mr. BologneseIB Geography 11May 20, 2008
 
Key terms
Globalization:
The sharing of economic, social and cultural ideas around the world
In economics, technology, culture and communications
Stronger in the present age than ever Tiger Economies:
Countries with rapid economic growth
In the 1990s, countries with the most rapidly growing economies were in southernand western South America, and in South, South-East and East AsiaExternal Forces: factors from outside the country that affect a country’s economyInternal Forces: factors from inside the country that affects a country's economyCulture Contact: the act of bringing new ideas to a country by a different group of peopleof different nationalityFinancial Flows: the floe of money between people, businesses and countries that canhelp economic growth by providing funds for the country.Bilateral: something happening between two countries. In this case trade agreementsMultilateral: something happening between several countries. In this case tradeagreementsBureaucracy: finance to develop resources in a nationInternal Capital Formation: the ability of a country to find it’s own funds to invest indevelopment projectsVicious Cycle of Poverty: cycle of impoverishment (little $
$ spent on needs [food,clothing, shelter]
no savings put into banks
little funds available for investment)Subsistence
Farming where the farmer keeps most of the crops for the consumption of her andher family
Most farmers in LEDCs are subsistence farmers
Farmers don’t have the motivation or the money to increase production
There is little surplus to sellAbsentee landlords
Control a lot of the farming land
Charge high rental costs to the farmers (to pay off debts to landlord)
farmersget little of the yield
 
Reduces farmers’ incentive to increase production
In many LEDCsAgribusiness
Large corporations involved in farming
Convince farmers in LEDCs to choose crop substitution (switch from food cropsto cash crops)
Prices of cash crops are falling, so farmers can’t make enough money to buy foodHigh yielding varieties (H.Y.V.s)
Genetically engineered
o
Shorter growing cycle
allows double or triple cropping of farmland
o
More resistant to disease
Especially rice and wheat
Improved food security in LEDCsRural-urban migration
Rapidly growing cities in LEDCs
In some cities in LEDCs, over half the population wasn’t born in the city
Migrants have more difficulty finding jobs than they had expected (lack skills)
Leads to unemployment, homelessness, living on the street, begging, prostitution,crime
People have less disposable income to spend on housing because they spend alarge proportion of their income on food
private developers don’t make a large profit by making cheap, large-scale to accommodate the population, so they oftendon’t build affordable housing
homelessnessShanty
Self-help housing
Shanty housing made from scrounged materials: e.g. pieces of iron, packingcases, disused plastic sheeting
70% to 95% of all new housing in LEDCs is made up of shanty housing
Some governments have the army or police destroy shanty settlements
Some governments provide basic services like electricityImport substitutionExport processing zonesSpecial economic zonesDebt trapCore-periphery Neo-liberal counter-revolutionSustainable development

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