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A New Diagnosis Algorithm for SensorsRatings:

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/139694674/A-New-Diagnosis-Algorithm-for-Sensors

03/02/2014

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A New Diagnosis Algorithm for SensorsBased On Morphology-Wavelet

Guo-Lian Hou ,Yi Zhang and Jian-Hua Zhang

Department of Automation, North China Electric Power University,Beijing,102206,China

Abstract-For

the purpose of increasing the effectiveness of sensors used for control systems, a new fault detecting anddiagnosing algorithm, using in connection with morphological –wavelet analysis, is being proposed. The mathematicalcharacterization of singularities with Lipschitz exponents isexplained. With the algorithm, firstly, generalizedmorphological filter with multi-structure elements is designedto filter the random noise and impulse noise in sensor’s inputand output signals. And secondly, to effectively extract theincipient fault and abrupt fault characteristic, a wavelettransform was used to decompose and analyze the filteredsignals in this paper. By the Multi Resolution Analyzing(MRA), the fault can be located accurately. The type of abrupt and incipient fault concerned can simultaneously bedistinguished by using Lipschitz exponent, according to thefault’s point of sudden change. The typical sensor faults suchas fix, gain, bias, drift faults were studied. The simulationresults show that this algorithm is capable of locatingaccurately and diagnosing effectively.

Ⅰ

.

I

NTRODUCTION

Process supervision and control rely fundamentally onthe process measure information obtained by sensors.Consequently, a sensor’s fault may be lead to themeasurements corrupted or the whole control systemineffective. For this reason, fault detection and diagnosis of sensors have received particular attention.The methods of model-based and model-freedsensor fault detection and diagnosis were studied in theseyears. In reference [1], the Kalman filter was designed tothe diagnosis of incipient sensor faults. However, theunknown inputs such as system disturbances and noiseswere not considered paper. A new descriptor estimator was constructed via the linear matrix inequality(LMI) to decouple both the input and output disturbancescompletely and simultaneously estimate the descriptor system state. Then the new estimator was applied to thesensor fault diagnosis [2]. However, the diagnosis schemewas relayed the model. In large-scale systems,model-based methods are inefficiently when the processmodel is not available or not easy to obtain.Recently, the knowledge-based approaches in sensor’sdetecting and diagnosing also have been published in [3].In reference [4], the multisensor information fusiontechnique based on Dempster-Shafer theory is applied tothe sensors fault detection and diagnosis. But there aresome drawbacks. If the number of sensor is larger, themethod can be indeed heavy to computing. In reference [5],to address the problems associated with detectingidentifying faults that occur in the sensor of dynamicalsystems with discrete-valued input and output signals.At present, wavelet analysis, by decomposing signalsinto elementary building blocks that are well localized bothin space and frequency, the wavelet transform cancharacterized the local regularity of signals. In mathematics,the local regularity of a function is often measured withLipschitz exponents. In practice, these theorems do not provide simple and direct strategies for detecting andcharacterizing singularities in signals. It is widely used inmechanic equipment fault detection, transmission line faultdetection [6]. Lipschitz Exponent is obtained from waveletmodulus maximum to detect singularity of signals in the paper. This paper shows the local maxima of the wavelettransform modulus provide enough information for analysing these singularities. Wavelet transform wasintroduced in to the sensor of abrupt diagnosis [7]. Themajor drawbacks of wavelet analysis approachesmentioned above is that it is unsuitable for extractingabrupt fault information. But due to the limited number of scales, a single wavelet amplitude map has not enoughscales to describe all details of the signal. To make up for the deficiency of wavelet transform in the application of abrupt diagnosis, multi-wavelet packets transform wasintroduced into abrupt sensor fault diagnosis [8]. Thismethod has been proved to be quite effective in thedetection of sensor abrupt fault. However, when the sensor signal was changed slowly (incipient faults), the method isnot accurately. Because wavelet transform requires the useof a window of adequate length and a high frequency toensure that the all details of fault component is extracted bythe wavelet transform. But the signal is difficult to beseparated from interference noise when the frequency is toomuch high. To make sure wavelet transform relativelyextract full-valued information, some new techniques areadopted to remove random noise (white noise and impulsenoise).Mathematical Morphology (MM) is developed from settheory and integral geometry, and is concerned with theshape of a signal waveform in the complete time domainrather than the frequency domain. MM has been widelyapplied in the areas of image processing [9], patternrecognition [10], and signal processing for their robustnessin preserving the shape while suppressing the noise. MM978-1-4244-1718-6/08/$25.00

♥2008

IEEE

Pg 970

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(7)(8)

2

(

ψ

oc

+

ψ

co

)

A

(9)Erosion:(1)

∫

aa

Dilation:

(2)Opening operator:(3)

=

1,2,

=

1,2,

can be developed as an efficient nonlinear filter. Usingmorphological filters, the radical shape of the disturbed can be recognized, even if the original is mixed with strongnoise (white noise and impulse noise). In addition, MM hasthe feature of easy calculation and implementation.Therefore, it is desired to seek for a systematic way todeal with how to exactly detect and diagnose the fault whenthe full-valued information was drowned by the noise. Inthis paper, the method of morphology-wavelet to deals withthe detection and diagnosis of sensors was proposed. Insection

Ⅱ

,

the generalized morphological filter with multi-structure elements is designed to filter the white noise andimpulse noise in sensor’s input and output signals. Andwavelet transform and multi-resolution analysis are also briefly introduced in section

Ⅱ

.

Section is proposed a

Ⅲ

new algorithm of the morphology-wavelet for the sensor detection and diagnosis. Section is a review on Lipschitz

Ⅳ

Exponent (LE) and their characterization with thetransform. The efficiency and relativity of the morphology-wavelet algorithm are verified by super-heated steamtemperature sensor of power plant in the section

Ⅴ

.

transformation but also the size and shape of the structuringelement. Usually, a flat structuring element which thevalues are all zero is used if there is no a priori knowledgeabout the profile of the signal.In (3) and (4), opening and closing filters defined byMaragos use the same structuring element. In order toeffective remove all positive and negative impulsive noiseand suppress additive white noise in signals, This paper constructs a kind of parallel composite filter with differentSE. This kind of filter also keeps more useful information.Flat line function can be chosen as the shape of SE in this paper.First level:

g

1

(

n

)

=

{

0,0,0,0,0,0,0

}

(5)

Second level:

g

2

(

n

)

=

{

0,0, 0, 0

}

(6)

Suppose that there is an input signal

f

(

n

)

and SE

aggregation {

g

1

,

g

2

}. The filters are:

ψ

oc

[

f

(

n

)

]

=

MAX

(

OC

g

1

,

OC

g

2

)

ψ

co

[

f

(

n

)

]

=

MIN

(

CO

g

1

,

CO

g

2

)

Ⅱ

.

T

HEORY

O

F

M

ORPHOLOGICAL

F

ILTER

A

ND

W

AVELET

T

RANSFORM

Morphological Filter

The Mathematical Morphology (MM) is nonlinear signaltransformation concerned with the shape of a waveform inWhere,Thus

OC

g

i

=

(

f

g

i

•

g

i

)(

n

)

(

i

=

1,2

)

CO

g

i

=

(

f

•

g

i

g

i

)(

n

)

(

i

=

1,2

)

y

(

n

)

=

1time domain rather than The morphologicalfiltering technique is to process signals by a function,known generally as structuring element (SE) or thestructuring function in order to capture signals, keep detailand reduce noises.In MM, dilation and erosion are two basic operations.Using the umbra of a function, the binary MM operatorscan be extended to 1-dimension (1-D) and n-dimension (n-D) signals. Here we only present the 1-D transformation.Definition Let

f

(

n

)

and

g

(

n

)

denote two real-valued

functions defined on the two discretedomain

F

=

{

1, 2

,

N

}

and

G

=

{

1, 2

,

M

}

,

respectively. It is further assumed that

M

<

N

.

f

(

n

)

is

an input signal and

g

(

n

)

is a structuring element. Then

the four basic morphological operations are defined by:

(

f

Θ

g

)(

n

)

=

p

min

M

{

f

(

n

+

m

)

−

g

(

m

)

}

(

f

⊕

g

)(

n

)

=

p

max

M

{

f

(

n

−

m

)

+

g

(

m

)

}

(

f

g

)(

n

)

=

(

f

Θ

g

⊕

g

)(

n

)

Closing operator:

(

f

•

g

)(

n

)

=

(

f

⊕

g

Θ

g

)(

n

)

(4)

Where “

Θ

”is the symbol of erosion. “

⊕

” is the symbol

of dilation. “

” is the symbol of opening. “

•

” is thesymbol of closing.In morphological filtering, the results of the operationsThen the output signal of morphological filter is theaverage value of both outputs, this result could be muchapproach the practical signal.

B Wavelet Transform

Wavelet transform has powerful ability in signal processing. Since wavelet transformation can localizesensor signal characteristics both in time and frequencydomain.The wavelet transform of a continuous signal

f

(

t

)

is

defined as

1

∞

t

−

b F

(

a

,

b

)

=

f

(

t

)

ψ

( )

dt

(10)

−∞

Where,

ψ

(

t

)

is the mother wavelet,

a

is the time scalingfactor and

b

is the time shifting factor. Db4 wavelet ischosen in this paper.

Ⅲ

.

M

ORPHOLOGY

-W

AVELET

A

LGORITHM

F

OR

F

AULT

D

ETECTION

Multi-resolution wavelet transform has been applied invarious areas benefiting from its outstanding ability of detecting singular signal and the great filtering ability,while morphological filter is a new non-linear tool for digital signal processing, both of them have their superiorities. This paper presents a novel type of integratedfilter named morphology-wavelet algorithm.Consider linear systems:depend on not only the form of morphological

Pg 971

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(11)

1212

R

'

(

n

)

=

(20)(14)

a

(21)

Λ

k

=

Where:(17)

2

y

(

s

)

=

G

(

s

)

u

(

s

)

+ ∆

G

(

s

)

u

(

s

)

+

E

(

s

)

Where

y

(

s

)

is output;

u

(

s

)

is input;

E

(

s

)

is random

noise;

G

(

s

)

is system transfer function.

∆

G

(

s

)

reflects

the change of system parameters.Morphology-wavelet algorithm for fault detection anddiagnosis of system is presented in 4 Theframework of the morphology-wavelet algorithm is shownin Fig.1.

Step1:

The generalized morphological filter with multi-structure elements is used to filter the white noise andimpulse noise in sensor’s input

u

(

t

)

and output

y

(

t

)

. The

filter’s outputs are

y

u

(

t

)

and

y

y

(

t

)

respectively.

y

u

(

t

)

=

[(

u

(

t

)

g

i

•

g

i

)

+

(

u

(

t

)

•

g

i

g

i

)]

(

i

=

1,2

)

(12)

y

y

(

t

)

=

[(

y

(

t

)

g

i

•

g

i

)

+

(

y

(

t

)

•

g

i

g

i

)]

(

i

=

1,2

)

(13)

Step2:

To apply the wavelet transform to the filter’soutputs

y

u

(

t

)

and

y

y

(

t

)

. Through the wavelet

transformation, extract the useful information to locate thesingularity of input and output signals. According to thetransformation result

W

u

(

s

,

t

)

and

W

y

(

s

,

t

)

, the

maximum of input and output signals can be calculated.

W

u

(

s

,

t

)

=

y

u

(

t

)

,

ψ

(

t

)

W

y

(

s

,

t

)

=

y

y

(

t

)

,

ψ

(

t

)

(15)

Step3:

Through compare the maximum which is mutated

by

W

u

(

s

,

t

)

and

W

y

(

s

,

t

)

, get the ride of the maximum

which is mutated by

W

u

(

s

,

t

)

. Then the other maximum

are the faults of sensor. The algorithm is shown as fellow:

Λ

r

(

t

)

=

W

y

(

s

,

t

)

−

k W

u

(

s

,

t

)

(16)

∑

W

y

(

s

,

t

)

W

u

(

s

,

t

)

∑

W

u

(

s

,

t

)

Step4:

Set the soft threshold to remove the disturbances of the detection results. The soft threshold is calculated asfollows [11]:

N

∑

r

(

n

)

N

Strength factor:

σ

=

n

=

1 (18)0 .6475Soft threshold:

Th

=

σ

2 ln(

N

)

(19)Where the signal

r

(

t

)

is sampled as discrete signal

Fig. 1. The framework of the morphology-wavelet algorithm

0,

r

(

n

)

<=

Th

r

(

n

)

,

r

(

n

)

>

Th

Ⅳ

.

L

IPSCHITZ

E

XPONENTS

F

OR

F

AULT

D

IAGNOSIS

As mentioned in the introduction, a remarkable propertyof the wavelet transform is its ability to characterize thelocal regularity of signals. In mathematics, this localregularity is often measured with Lipschitz exponent [6].Definition 1. Let n be a positive integer and

n

≤

a

≤

n

+

1

.A function

f

(

t

)

is said to be Lipschitz

a

, at a point

t

0

, if

and only if there exists two constants A and

h

0

>

0 ,and a polynomial of order

n

,such that for

h

<

h

0

f

(

t

0

+

h

)

−

P

n

(

h

)

≤

A h

The function

f

(

t

)

is uniformly Lipschitz

a

the

interval [a, b], if and only if a constant A and for any

t

0

∈

[a, b] there exists a polynomial of order

n

,

P

n

(

h

)

,such that in (19) is satisfied if

t

0

+

h

∈

[

a

,

b

]

.We call Lipschitz regularity of

f

(

t

)

at

t

0

, the superior

bound of all values a such that

f

(

t

)

is Lipschitz a at

t

0

.

We say that a function is singular at

t

0

, if it is notLipschitz 1 at

t

0

.We suppose that the wavelet

ψ

(

t

)

is continuouslydifferentiable and its decay rate at the infinite is

O

1

2

.

1

+

t

Mallat has proved that the function is

f

(

t

)

Lipschitz

a

over the interval

(

a

,

b

)

. If and only if there exists a

constant

k

such that the wavelets transform coefficients of the function

ψ

(

t

) , denoted as

W

s

f

(

t

)

, satisfies

r

(

n

)

.

N

is the sampled number.Then the detection result was transferred into as below:

W

s

f

(

t

)

≤

ks

a

(22)

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