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1 Gbps Wireless Link in 5 GHz Radio Frequency Band

1 Gbps Wireless Link in 5 GHz Radio Frequency Band

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Published by Ankan RoyBardhan
WLAN link using 5GHz unlicensed spectrum providing 1Gbps throughput.
WLAN link using 5GHz unlicensed spectrum providing 1Gbps throughput.

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Published by: Ankan RoyBardhan on May 06, 2013
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09/26/2013

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RF Circuits and Systems (EEE 6374 Spring 2013) Project Report; UFID#06078296
1
 
Abstract 
 — 
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) are anextension of Local Area Network (LAN) which are typically ashort ranged data communication network between portabledevices and an Access Point (AP). The end users or nodes,communicate to this AP using a Network Adapter analogous toEthernet Connection. The mobility within transmission rangegives added advantage to being connected. Fast growingrequirement of Gigabit data rates, call for sophisticated network architecture reform from PHY (MIMO-OFDM) to Transportlayer (Wireless TCPs) and high level modulation ensuring moredata rate, but it comes inherently with higher Bit Error Rate(BER) and poorer EVM (Error Vector Magnitude-SignalConstellation) at the transmitter. In this project, an RF wirelessLink has been designed which ensures to provide peak data rateof 1 Gbps at 5 GHz band. High attenuation is expected sincefrequency band is high; therefore the distance of transmission isalso a major concern. RF system design for transmitter andreceiver is presented, to keep EVM within 2% and BER within10
-5
which are the prescribed limits as mentioned in subsequentsections.
Index Terms 
 — 
 
Path Loss, Power Amplifiers, QAM, SignalConstellation, Spectrum.
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 
IRELESS
LAN RF module is the most important aspectin a Digital Communication System, since it has a directimpact on the quality of receiver signal. This part isresponsible to move the baseband data onto Radio Frequency,in which it is transmitted. Since we operate in a wirelessmedium, the received signal is typically attenuated anddistorted likewise due to Multi-paths caused by reflection andrefraction in the environment. High Level modulation schemessuch as QPSK, 16/64/256 QAM can be used which pumpsmore bits per symbol, but these increase the Bit Error Rate(BER) for a given SNR (we denote SNR as

in digitaldomain). The signal constellation gets crowded as we increasethe modulation level, thus making it vulnerable to decisionerrors at the receiver decision device. If the transmitted power is increased so as to increase the probability of the receivedsignal to be more than a threshold SNR, we tend to increasethe noise at the transmitted signal too along-with putting moreout of band emissions which might cause interference to theadjacent channels. There are several such considerationswhich are described in the following sections.At the transmitted, we intend not to saturate the PA (Power Amplifier) and IF Amplifier (Intermediate Frequency). This isthe reason for the OIP3 (3
rd
Order Output IntermodulationProduct) to be kept on higher side, especially for the PA, sincechances of saturating PA is highest, as the available input power to the PA faces high Gain (at each stage) till it reachesPA. Major concern in designing the entire Wireless Link is theLinearity and Noise Figure. So, the link budget is designedusing
Syscalc 6.0,
where we only calculate the receiver NoiseFigure of receiver circuit and check for linearity and path lossthrough receiver, at the transmitter. An important thing to noteis, we have to consider the transmitter and receiver antenna to be
 Isotropic (0 dB Gain)
as per given problem statement.For designing an RF module, we need to consider onefrequency band which can provide 1Gbps data rate. The center frequency should be in the 5GHz band. Therefore 256 QAMhas been considered as a modulation scheme at the transmitter and a channel bandwidth of 160 MHz as specified in IEEE802.11ac standard has been used. The RF transmitter andreceivers has been designed using Agilent ADS 2012.08 usingheterodyne architecture because of several reasons which will be explained throughout the flow of this work.Section II consist a basic overview of the channel allocationand band specification as mentioned in IEEE 802.11ac.Section III presents the transmitter and receiver architecture.This section explains all the modules being used and their specification has been justified with the application point of view. In section IV, Link budget analysis has been shown.This has been implemented using Syscalc 6.0 and the valueshas been used to manually calculate receiver sensitivity, sinceit is observed, this software does not provide appropriateSensitivity. Section V concludes the work and followed byacknowledgement in section VI.II.
 
C
HANNEL
A
LLOCATION AND SPECTRUM SPECIFICATIONS
 – 
 
IEEE
 
802.11acIEEE 802.11ac has been standardized in the IEEE 802.11suite, which ensures to give a peak data rate of 3.4 Gbps(single link). The FCC transmit spectrum mask has beenshown in fig.. . Essentially it uses MIMO spatial streams to boost up the data rate. The channel allocation is shown infig.1. FCC UNII spectrum bands are shown in the followingfigure. 802.11ac takes up the 160MHz band with the givencenter frequency.
RF Architecture for 1 Gbps Wireless Link WLAN.
Ankan Roybardhan,
 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 
,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL(USA)
.
 
W
 
RF Circuits and Systems (EEE 6374 Spring 2013) Project Report; UFID#06078296
2.
Fig.1.
 IEEE802.11 spectrum allocation from FCC-UNII 
 
For our work, would consider the 160MHz band, and one band would include one channel (Not considerable out-of- band emission). The consideration is quite logical in the sense,since we are not implementing sophisticated MIMOtechniques, for getting 1Gbps data rate we need to consider huge bandwidth (160MHz X 8 bits per symbol for 256QAM=1.2 Gbps).The standards [7][8] shows the maximum transmitted power should not exceed +30 dBm, which is the case we get in our simulation. The transit mask should follow the following-
Fig.2.
Transit Spectrum Mask 
 
Center frequency is considered to be 5.25GHz (5170+80MHz). Channel BW is 160 MHz and so the band 160 MHz asit is a wide band channel and we typically follow 802.11acstandard. In addition to it, since the channel allocation is notcontiguous as in fig.1, we would consider one single channelas a whole because a part of the 2
nd
channel has weather forecast communications.III.
 
RF
 
S
YSTEM
A
RCHITECTURE
 Heterodyne architecture has been considered for this design process because the circuit simplicity. We are essentiallyoperating at 5GHz band, so chances of LO leakage, and DCoffset may come up which may produce a zero frequencycomponent and ultimately saturate the high speed ADC, if homodyne system had been implemented. It is better to go for atleast one stage down-conversion to the baseband before wedemodulate or put any kind of filtering (higher operatingfrequency will give high Q filter which is costly).Following are architectures explained for the Wirelesstransmission system-A)
 
Transmitter RF architecture
 Modulation-256 QAM : 8 bits per symbol.The
 Intermediate Frequency (IF)
is 290 MHz because the IFshould be more than the receiver band (160 MHz) and the practical blocks/modules in transmitter are available in marketfor this IF frequency. Symbol rate is 125 MHz (1 Gbps/8 bits per symbol). Inside the SUC_AMUFA has been shown below
 – 
 
Fig.4.
 IF-RF Composite Block with Channel Select Filter 
 
Following are the list of the components used in thearchitecture-
Block/ComponentsGain(dB) NoiseFigure(dB)OIP3(dBm)F_center Filter PassbandIF Amplifier 21.9 3.7 34.6Mixer 0.8
ǂ
13.2* 24LO=4.9GHz;and IF =290 MHzBandpassFilter1_chebyshev-2.5** 2.5 5.25 GHz 225 MHzPower Amplifier (PA)32 3.01 42.636Duplexer Filter_Elliptic***-2.5** 2.5 5.25 GHz 225 MHz*NF
SSB
=NF
DSB
-3dB=16.2-3 dB.**Gain= - Insertion Loss.*** Elliptical filter gives the optimal response amongst all IIR filter classes.
ǂ
Mixer has conversion Gain only. ConvGain.
The band selected is 225 MHz. This is because of the factthat it is wide band system and it operates on higher frequency band 5GHz, which is not crowded much with ISM equipmentor other part 15 equipment, the filter response can be relaxed.This relaxation is used to meet/adjusted to meet the EVMrequirement of maximum 2%.
 B)
 
 Receiver RF Architecture.
 
Fig.5.
 Receiver RF architecture
 
The main idea here is, we would emulate the received signalconstellation as shown in the above figure. by a 256 QAMsystem with a given RF Power calculated equal to sensitivity.
 f1=79 MHz  f2=81 MHz  f3=160 MHz  f4=240 MHz 
Fig.3.
Transmitter RF architecture
 
RF Circuits and Systems (EEE 6374 Spring 2013) Project Report; UFID#06078296
3Though the constellation received will be poor at the receiver, but this is only way we can consider having the received
signal at the receiver’s input. The received power which is se
tto -52.32 dBm is calculated by the sensitivity equation asexplained in section IV. Here we use, Lower Side Band (LSB)receiver circuit, so the LO_frequency is set to 5.54GHz suchthat different between LO and RF should be IF=290 MHz. The block SDC_AMFA is enlarged as following
 – 
 
Fig.6.
 Receiver RF architecture
 
Following are the list of the components used in thearchitecture-
Block/ComponentsGain(dB) NoiseFigure(dB)OIP3(dBm)F_center Filter PassbandDuplexer Filter_SAW21.9 3.7 34.6Low NoiseAmplifier 24.43 1.86 23Mixer 0.8 16.3* 24LO=5.54GHz; and IF =290 MHzBandpassFilter1_chebyshev-1.3 1.3 290 MHz 225 MHzIF Amplifier 21.9 3.7 34.6*Here we do Single Side band. So NF will be 3 dB worse
IV.
 
L
INK 
B
UDGET
A
 NALYSIS
 
Fig. 7a.
SysCalc Linearity Check for Transmitter 
1)
 
 BER is given as 10
-5
; E 
b
 /N 
0
=22.4dB


 
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 
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
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
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



 
(
)

 
**T=290K; KT=-174 dBm/Hz.
2)
 
 Maximum transmission range
By frii’s free space equation
-
(
)

(
)

(
)

(
)

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
)
 
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 
 
Since,
 P 
=19dBm from the simulation result as below of the transmitter circuitand the P input for this transmitter is from syscalc P
in
-Fig.7b.
 Power Amplifier Pin v/s Pout 1
 st 
and 3
rd 
order IMP 
3)
 
 PA Modeling 
Fig. 8.
 Power Amplifier Pin v/s Pout 1
 st 
and 3
rd 
order IMP 
The point has been shown for the 1dB compression for the1
st
and 3
rd
order Intermodulation Product.It is seen that Interpolated Output Power (P
1dB,out
dBm), gain(dBm) and Gain Compression (dB) are 30.976, 31.014 and0.962 respectively. Which means by P
1dB,out
=P
1dB,in
+G-0.962,P
1dB,in
=0.962 dBm where in actual, the input power to PA is(19.87 dBm+2.5(due to filter)-32(gain of PA)=-9.63 dBm), sothe PA will not saturate with this input Power to the PA.
4)
 
Signal Constellation
 – 
Transmitter 
Fig.9.
Transmitter EVM 

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