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GSM word file

GSM word file

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Published by evilanubhav
the pdf has some probs in figures ,, so this is the original copy i have created..
the pdf has some probs in figures ,, so this is the original copy i have created..

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Published by: evilanubhav on Apr 05, 2009
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08/02/2013

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AssignmentG.S.M
Introduction
GSM
(
Global System for Mobile communications
) is the most popular standardformobile phonesin the world. Its promoter, theGSM Association, estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard. GSM is used by over 3billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. Its ubiquity makesinternationalroamingvery common betweenmobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs from itspredecessors in that both signaling and speech channels aredigital, and thus isconsidered a
second generation
(2G) mobile phone system.
GSM services and features
1.
Telephonic services :
It includes emergency calls and fax related services.
 
2.
Supplementary ISDN services:
 These are digital in nature and includescall diversion and call identification. It also includes SMS , which allows GSMsubscribers and base station to transmit alphanumeric pages of limitedlength.3.
Subscriber Identity Module:
One of the key features of GSM is theSubscriber Identity Module(SIM), commonly known as a
SIM card
. The SIM isa detachablesmart cardcontaining the user's subscription information andphone book. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets.Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the handsetsimply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing thephone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice isknown as
and is illegal in some countries.4.
GSM Security:
GSM was designed with a moderate level of security.Communications between the subscriber and the base station can beencrypted.GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. TheA5/1andA5/2  stream ciphersare used for ensuring over-the-air voice privacy.5.
Voice Codecs :
GSM has used a variety of voicecodecsto squeeze 3.1 kHzaudio into between 5.6 and 13 kbit/s. Originally, two codecs, named after thetypes of data channel they were allocated, were used, calledHalf Rate (5.6 kbit/s) andFull Rate(13 kbit/s). These used a system based uponlinear predictive coding(LPC). In addition to being efficient with bitrates, thesecodecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio,allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal.6.
GSM Frequencies:
GSM networks operate in a number of differentfrequency ranges.a.)Most2GGSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands.b.)The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in somecountries where these frequencies were previously used for first-generation systems.
 
c.)Most3GGSM networks in Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequencyband.d.)GSM-900 uses 890–915 MHz to send information from themobile station to thebase station(uplink) and 935–960 MHz for the other direction(downlink), providing 124 RF channels (channel numbers 1 to 124) spacedat 200 kHz. Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is used.
GSM Architecture
A-BIS Interface 
A Interface
BSS NSSOSSArchitecture
It consist of three major interconnected systems that interact between themselvesand with the user through certain interfaces The subsystems are:BTBSBTBTBTBSBT
 
BTMS PSTNISDNDataNetworOMCHLVLR ACMM

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