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Daniunas 2008 Engineering-Structures

Daniunas 2008 Engineering-Structures

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Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3114–3118
Contents lists available atScienceDirect
Engineering Structures
Analysis of the steel frames with the semi-rigid beam-to-beam andbeam-to-column knee joints under bending and axial forces
Alfonsas Dani¯unas
, K¸ estutis Urbonas
Department of Steel and Timber Structures, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Saul˙ etekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania
a r t i c l e i n f o
 Article history:
Received 18 January 2008Received in revised form11 April 2008Accepted 21 April 2008Available online 29 May 2008
Keywords:
Steel semi-rigid jointsKnee jointsBending momentAxial forceComponent method Joints’ characteristicsSteel frameworks analysis
a b s t r a c t
This paper presents an analysis of framework structures with semi-rigid joints. The semi-rigid end-platebolted joints are subjected to bending and tension or a compression axial force. Usually the influence of an axial force on joint rotational stiffness is neglected. In some cases, the level of axial forces in the jointsof structures can be significant and has a profound influence on characteristics of semi-rigid joints. Oneof the most popular practical methods permitting the determination of rotational stiffness and momentresistance of a joint is the so-called component method. The extension of the component method forevaluating the influence of bending moment and axial force on the rotational stiffness and momentresistanceofajointandanapplicationtotheanalysisofframeworkstructuresarepresentedinthepaper.The numerical results of calculations of steel frameworks are presented in this paper as well. The studyshows that the estimation of axial force influence to rotation stiffness characteristics of the joint hassignificant influence on the distribution of internal forces and displacements of steel framework.
©
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
One of the possibilities to improve the accuracy of steelframework analysis can be an evaluation of the actual behaviorof joints. For such purposes, the semi-rigid joint conception wasintroduced.The most relevant influence on characteristics of the joint isproducedbybendingmoments.Inthiscase,thebehaviorofasemi-rigidjointisdescribedbymoment–rotation
M
Φ
curveofthejoint.This conception is adopted by most researchers[1–6]and design code EC3 [7]. Joints are also influenced by axial and shear forces. These forces are not usually evaluated in calculating the rotationalstiffness and moment resistance of the joints.There are many different types of joints in which the axialforce may be significant and it has a profound influence on jointrotational stiffness and moment resistance. The influence of anaxial force on characteristics of the joint has not been analysedwidely and it has not been completely investigated yet[8–10]. Various methods may be used for the establishment of moment–rotation
M
Φ
curves of semi-rigid joints[3]. The most common method applied in practice is the so-called mechanicalcomponent method. It estimates the mechanical properties of the material and geometrical properties of the joint and allows
Corresponding author. Tel.: +370 5 274 50 03; fax: +370 5 270 01 12.
E-mail address:
calculating the rotational stiffness and moment resistance of the joint [3,7,11]. The component method is developed for evaluation of the bending moment influence on moment–rotationcharacteristics of joint.This paper presents extension of the component method tosemi-rigid beam-to-beam end-plate bolted and beam-to-columnend-plate bolted knee joints under bending and axial force. Themain focus is made on an estimation of the axial force influence inaddition to bending moment influence on the joint’s rigidity andstrength.Estimation of real behavior of the joints has significantinfluence to the behavior results of the steel frameworks [12–15]. In this article, the iterative procedure for the calculationof steel frameworks with semi-rigid joints is presented. In eachiteration, the steel frame is analysed using joint moment–rotationcharacteristics, which are calculated using the bending momentsand axial forces, obtained in the previous iteration.
2. The evaluation of bending moment and axial force in jointsby component method
The joints of steelworks are acted by bending moments as wellas axial and shear forces. The influence of these forces to thebehaviorof jointdependsmostlyonthetypeof thejoint.From thepractical point of view, the investigation of total bending momentand axial force influence on joint characteristics is importantfor end-plate beam-to-beam knee, beam-to-column knee and
0141-0296/$ – see front matter
©
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2008.04.027
 
 A. Dani¯ unas, K. Urbonas / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3114–3118
3115
Notation
E
modulus of elasticity
c
compression force in components
c
,
i
,
Rd
resistance of the weakest compressed component
i
c
,
max
maximal compression force in components
c
,
max
,
i
,
Rd
resistance of the weakest compressed component
i
of the joint, when both sides of the joint are undercompression forces
tension force in components
,
max
maximal tension force in components
,
max
,
,
Rd
effective tension resistance of bolt row
in tensionpartofthejoint,wherethemaximaltensionforceisacting
,
max
minimal tension force in components
,
min
,
i
,
Rd
resistance of the weakest component
i
in tensionpart of the joint, where the minimal tension forceis acting
,
,
Rd
effective tension resistance of bolt row
M
bending moment
M
 j
,
Rd
moment resistance
axial force
S
 j
,
ini
initial rotational stiffness of the joint
shear force
h
distance from bolt row
to the centre of compres-sion
k
eq
equivalent stiffness coefficient of two or more bolt-rows in tension
 z
c
distance between the centre of the connection andthe centre of compression
 z
eq
equivalent lever arm
 z
distance between the centre of the connection andthe centre of tension
 z
distancebetweencentreofconnectionandboltrowin the lower part of connection
Φ
rotation of joint
,
eq
equivalent tension deformation
,
max
,
eq
equivalent tension deformation of componentsunder maximal tension force
,
min
,
i
tension deformation of components under minimaltension forcecolumn-to-column joints. Some of them are presented inFig. 1.In some framework structures with these types of joints axial forcesmay be significant and may strongly influence joint rotationalstiffness and moment resistance.In this paper the procedure, which evaluates the behavior of thesejointsunderthebending moment andaxial forceisbased onthe component method. The evaluation of the behavior of joint inthecomponentmethodconsistsofthreemainsteps:identificationof the basic component, evaluation of the mechanical propertiesof the components, and assembling active components to onemechanical model [10]. According to the component method,the characteristics of the joint must be determined by the basiccomponents of the joint[16]. The component method allows to characterise all componentsof the joint independent from the type of loading applied to the joint. An elastic stiffness coefficient and resistance that belongsonlytomechanicalandgeometricaldataofthejointrepresenteachcomponent.Axial force increases or decreases the forces in componentsfrom the bending moment. This property allows componentmethod suggested to evaluate joint behavior under the bendingmoment to extend for evaluation joint behavior under bendingmoment and axial force.Mechanicalmodelofthejointdependsonvaluesanddirectionsof acting forces[17,18]. There are three possible cases: (a) components are under compression or under tension whenone part of the joint is in tension and the other one is incompressionFig. 2(b); (b) no components are under tension when both sides of the joint are in compressionFig. 2(c); (c) components are under tension when both sides of the joint are intensionFig. 2(d).Tension and compression force in components, when one partof the joint is under tension and the other under compressionforceFig. 2(b) can be expressed by the formula:
=
M z
eq
+
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
·
z
c
 z
eq
;
c
=
M z
eq
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
·
z
 z
eq
,
(1)where
M
is accepted as always positive;
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
expresses value of joint axial force which is perpendicular toend-plate;
is axial force in connected element and accepted aspositive for tension case; ‘
±
’ means ‘
+
’ or ‘
’ and according tothispropositionnormaltotheend-plateofshearforce
(
±
·
sin
α
)
accepted as positive if it causes the tension of the joint.Equivalent deformation of components under tension can befound by the formula:
,
eq
=
M z
eq
+
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
·
 z
c
 z
eq
E
·
k
eq
=
M
+
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
·
z
c
E
·
k
eq
·
z
eq
(2)where
k
eq
is equivalent stiffness coefficient of two or more bolt-rows in tension and
z
eq
is equivalent lever arm.The rotation of the end-plate joint depends on the deformationof all tensed components
i
:
Φ
=
,
eq
 z
eq
.
(3)The initial rotational stiffness of the joint is expressed by theratio between bending moment and rotation of the joint:
S
 j
,
ini
=
M
Φ
=
M
·
z
eq
,
eq
.
(4)Maximal compression force in components, when both sides of the joint with symmetric section elements are under compressionforcesFig. 2(c), can be expressed by:
c
,
max
=
M
2
 z
c
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
2
.
(5)In such case, there are no components in tension and the jointaccordingtoEC3[7]insuchtypeofloadingbehavesasideallyrigid(see formulas(3)and(4)). Maximalandminimaltensionforcesincomponents,whenbothsidesofthejointareundertensionforcesFig.2(d)canbeexpressed by:
,
max
=
M
(
 z
+
z
)
+
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
·
z
(
 z
+
z
)
;
,
min
=
M
(
 z
+
z
)
+
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
·
z
(
 z
+
z
).
(6)Deformation of components under maximal and minimaltension forces can be found the following way:
,
max
,
eq
=
M
(
 z
+
 z
)
+
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
·
 z
(
 z
+
 z
)
E
·
k
eq
;
,
min
,
i
=
M
(
 z
+
 z
)
+
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
·
 z
(
 z
+
 z
)
E
·
k
,
i
.
(7)
 
3116
A. Dani¯ unas, K. Urbonas / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3114–3118
Fig. 1.
Semi-rigid end-plate joints: (a) column-to-beam knee joint; (b) beam-to-beam knee joint; (c) beam-to-beam joint.
Fig. 2.
Loading schemes and mechanical models of joint: (a) beam-to-beam knee jointwithpositivedirectionofinternalforces;(b)upperpartofjointintensionandlower part in compression; (c) both sides of joint in compression; (d) both sides of  joint in tension.
Theinitialrotationalstiffnessofthejointforthiscaseofloadingis expressed by:
S
 j
,
ini
=
M
Φ
=
M
(
 z
+
z
)
,
max
,
eq
,
min
,
i
.
(8)The above presented procedure for stiffness calculation is onlyapplicableinthecasewherethebehaviorofthestructureiselastic.Themomentresistanceofthejointloadedbybendingandaxialforces can be expressed as a function of axial force (the force thatis perpendicular to end-plate) and resistance of the components.When one part of the joint is under tension and the other one isunder compression forceFig. 2(b), the moment resistance can beexpressed by the formula:
M
 j
,
Rd
=
min
(
,
,
Rd
·
h
)
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
·
z
c
c
,
i
,
Rd
·
z
eq
+
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
·
z
(9)where
h
— distance from bolt row
to the centre of compression;
— indicate the sum according to
, where
is the number of boltrows in tension part of joint.When both sides of the joint are under compression forcesFig. 2(c), the moment resistance can be expressed by the formula:
M
 j
,
Rd
=
z
c
(
2
c
,
max
,
i
,
Rd
+
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)).
(10)When both sides of the joint are in tension forcesFig. 2(d), the moment resistance can be expressed by the formula:
M
 j
,
Rd
=
min
(
,
max
,
,
Rd
(
h
z
c
+
z
))
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
×
 z
(
·
cos
α
±
·
sin
α
)
·
z
,
min
,
i
,
Rd
(
 z
+
z
)
.
(11)where
,
max
,
,
Rd
—effective tension resistance of bolt row
intensionpartofthejoint,wherethemaximaltensionforceisacting;
,
min
,
i
,
Rd
—resistance of the weakest component
i
in tension part of the joint, where the minimal tension force is acting.
Fig. 3.
Flowchart of framework analysis with semi-rigid joints under bending andaxial forces.
3. Analysis of steel frames with semi-rigid joints includinginfluence of bending moments and axial forces
In this chapter, the procedure for calculation of steel frameswith semi-rigid joints suggested by the authors is presented. Thisprocedure can be used as part of an iterative design process forsteel frames. The calculation of steel frames according to thisprocedure can be performed with the software used in steelworkdesign. The evaluation of the rotational stiffness of joints is theminimum requirement for the software to be used.When the influence of bending moment and axial forces istaken into account the characteristics of joint and magnitudeof acting forces are interdependent. In this case characteristicsof joints as well as frame forces and displacements have to becalculated by an iterative procedure until the changes of jointcharacteristics and forces in structure between two iterationsbecome very small(Fig. 3). When the influence of the axial forces is disregarded, then no iteration procedure is needed fordetermination of characteristics of the joints and internal forces of the frame.

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