Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 3003–3013
Proportioning of steel beam–column members based on RSDoptimization methodology
Luisa María Gil-Martín
, Mark Aschheim
, Enrique Hernández-Montes
University of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, 18072 Granada, Spain
Santa Clara University, 500 El Camino Real, Santa Clara, CA, United States
a r t i c l e i n f o
Received 11 February 2008Received in revised form2 April 2008Accepted 3 April 2008Available online 20 May 2008
Steel structuresStructural optimization
a b s t r a c t
Duetothecostandenergyembodiedinsteelproduction,areductioninthecross-sectionalareaofasteelstructuralmembercouldimplyasignificantsavingofmoneyandreductioningreenhousegasemissions.Hernandez-Montes et al. [Hernández-Montes E, Aschheim M, Gil-Martin LM. The impact of optimallongitudinal reinforcement on the curvature ductility capacity of reinforced concrete column sections.MagConcreteRes2004;56(9):499–512;Hernández-MontesE,Gil-MartínLM,AschheimM.Thedesignof concrete members subjected to uniaxial bending and compression using reinforcement sizing diagrams.ACIStructJ2005;102(1):150–8]proposedananalyticalapproachforreducingtheamountoflongitudinalreinforcementinreinforcedconcretememberssubjectedtotheactionofaxialforceandbendingmomentacting about a principal axis of the cross-section. The approach, which makes use of ReinforcementSizing Diagrams (RSD), makes use of a graphical representation of all possible reinforcement solutionsfor a particular concrete cross-section subjected to a combined loading consisting of bending momentand axial load
. The common symmetric solution is recognized as just one of the infinite numberof possible solutions. The RSD methodology used in that approach is extended in the present paper tosteel sections having at least one axis of symmetry, subjected to axial force, bending moment about thestrongaxis,andshearactingintheplaneofthebendingmoment.Specialconsiderationsareintroducedtoaddresstheinstabilitiesassociatedwithslendersteelelements.Themethodologyisdevelopedfollowingthe Eurocode 3 provisions for compact steel members.
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Structural members may be present as individual membersor as a part of a sub-assembly of a more complex structuralframework. Members of indeterminate structures interact withone another, with respect to redistribution of loads and thedevelopment of instabilities. Beam–column members, whichare subjected simultaneously to bending and axial force, occurfrequentlyintypicalsteelstructures.Forthisreasonthebehaviourand design of such members has been central to steel design.Beams constitute a special case, where the axial load
isnegligible or zero, and are considered to be a subset of the moregeneral beam–column design problem.Thepresentpaperconsiderstheoptimaldesignofbeam–columnmembers in which external loading causes an in-plane bendingmoment,
, acting about the strong axis of the cross-section, a
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,consideredtobeappliedatthecentroidoftherectangularwebof thesection,anddirectedalongthelongitudinalaxisofthemember(seeFig. 1). Beam–columns subjected to torsion or biaxial bendingare not considered in the present work. Furthermore, this studyis restricted to compact sections (i.e. Class 1 sections per EC3)
that are symmetric about the minor principal axis of the section(Fig. 1). The section is proportioned to provide sufficient strengthto resist these actions (
) and sufficient stiffness to preventpremature buckling. An additional constraint, relating to the stiff-nessnecessarytolimitdeflectionstoacceptablelevels,mayalsobeimposed.It is common in concrete structures to have longitudinalreinforcement arranged symmetrically in the cross-section. Infact, the design of longitudinal reinforcement is often madewith the assistance of
interaction diagrams, which generallyare presented only for symmetric reinforcement. However, itis evident from RSD design approaches that in some cases itis feasible and economically advantageous to use asymmetricreinforcement distributions.Fig. 2illustrates this for an exampledescribed in Hernandez-Montes et al. [1,2]. RSD methodology
consists in the consideration of all the possible solutions, for
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