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Nie 2008 Engineering-Structures

Nie 2008 Engineering-Structures

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Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1396–1407www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct
Effective width of steel–concrete composite beam at ultimate strength state
Jian-Guo Nie
a
, Chun-Yu Tian
a
, C.S. Cai
a
 Department of Civil Engineering, Laboratory of Structural Engineering and Vibration of China Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China
b
 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, United States
Received 24 September 2006; received in revised form 21 May 2007; accepted 30 July 2007Available online 10 September 2007
Abstract
In a steel–concrete composite beam section, part of the concrete slab acts as the flange of the girder in resisting the longitudinal compression.The well-known shear-lag effect causes a non-uniform stress distribution across the width of the slab and the concept of effective width is usuallyintroduced in the practical design to avoid a direct analytical evaluation of this phenomenon. In the existing studies most researchers have adoptedthe same definition of effective width which might induce inaccurate bending resistance of composite beam to sagging moments. In this paper, anew definition of effective width is presented for ultimate analysis of composite beam under sagging moments. Through an experimental studyand finite element modeling, the distribution of longitudinal strain and stress across the concrete slab are examined and are expressed with somesimplified formulae. Based on these simplified formulae and some assumptions commonly used, the effective width of the concrete slab and thedepth of the compressive stress block of composite beams with varying parameters under sagging moments are analytically derived at the ultimatestrength limit. It is found that the effective width at the ultimate strength is larger than that at the serviceability stage and simplified design formulaeare correspondingly suggested for the ultimate strength design.c
2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Steel–concrete; Composite; Effective width; Ultimate strength state; Experiment; Finite element analysis
1. Introduction
A steel–concrete composite beam consists of a concrete slabattached to a steel girder by means of shear connectors. Theshear connectors restrain the concrete slab immediately abovethe girder so that there is a non-uniform longitudinal stressdistribution across the transverse cross-section of the slab. Dueto the shear strain in the plane of the slab, the longitudinalstrain of the portion of the slab remote from the steel girder lagsbehind that of the portion near the girder. This so-called shear-lag effect causes a non-uniform stress distribution across thewidth of the slab. To avoid a direct analytical evaluation of thisphenomenon, the concept of effective slab width (simply calledeffective width hereafter) is usually introduced in practicaldesign in order to utilize a line girder analysis and beam theoryfor the calculations of deflection, stress and moment resistance.In a line girder analysis, individual girders are analysed insteadof analysing the entire bridge deck. The determination of the
Corresponding author.
 E-mail address:
cscai@lsu.edu(C.S. Cai).
effective width directly affects the computed moments, shears,torque, and deflections for the composite section and alsoaffects the proportions of the steel section and the number of shear connectors that are required.Since the 1920s there have been many investigatorswho studied the shear-lag effect in T-beam structures andsteel–concrete composite structures based on continuummechanics analysis, numerical method and experimental studyto develop realistic definitions of effective width. Adekola [1,2] and Ansourian and Aust[3] studied the effective width of composite beams using isotropic plate governing equationsin an elastic stage by numerical methods. It was foundthat the effective width depends strongly on the slab panelproportions and loading types and can only be used fordeflection and stress computations at serviceability level.Johnson[4]studied theeffective width ofcontinuous composite floor system at a strength limit state. Heins and Fan[5], Elkelish and Robison [6], Amadio and Fragiacomo[7], Amadio and Fedrigo[8] studied theoretically and experimentally the effective width of composite beams in elastic and/or inelasticstages. Results of these studies show that the effective width
0141-0296/$ - see front matterc
2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2007.07.027
 
 J.-G. Nie et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1396–1407 
1397
Notation
 A
s
tension area of steel beam section;
 A
s
compression area of steel beam section;
b
width of concrete slab of composite beam;
b
e
effective width of concrete slab of compositebeam;
 E 
c
elastic modulus of concrete;
 E 
s
elastic modulus of steel;
 E 
hardening modulus of steel;
 f 
design strength of steel;
 f 
c
cylindrical compressive strength of concrete;
 f 
cu
cubic compressive strength of concrete;
 f 
tension strength of concrete;
 f 
 y
yield strength of steel;
 f 
u
limit strength of steel;
h
c
height of concrete slab;
h
s
height of steel beam section;
 L
span of composite beam;
P
u
ultimate load of test
shear force of the connectors between concreteand steel;
u
shear strength of shear studs;
 z
c
depth between top surface of concrete and plasticneutral axis;
 z
c
0
depth between the plastic neutral axis and topsurface of concrete at
y
=
0
α
parameter presenting the degree of shear-lageffect;
β
ratio of effective width to real width;
ε
c
compressive strain in concrete slab;
ε
ct 
compressive strain on top surface of concreteslab;
ϕ
curvature of concrete slab;
λ
slip of the connectors between concrete and steel;
ν
Poisson’s ratio;
ξ
height of rectangular-stress block to
z
c
0
ratio;
σ 
c
stress in concrete slab;at the strength limit state is greater than that in the elasticstage and can essentially be taken as the real slab width. Basedon the research results of these investigations, design codeshave adopted, in general, simplified formulae or tables forthe effective width evaluation in order to facilitate the designprocess[9,10]. These design codes use the same effective width for both serviceability and strength limit states, thereby usuallyunderestimate the effective width at the strength limit state andare too conservative for moment resistance computations.Most previous studies have adopted the same definition of effective width where the longitudinal stress is considered tobe constant over the effective width and the total longitudinalforce within the effective width is equal to the total force of theactual stress distribution[11–13]. However, when the effective width from this traditional definition is used for the analysis of composite beam sections with a simple beam theory, the totalbending moment in the concrete slab is usually different fromthat based on the actual stress distribution, especially in thestrength limit state. As a result, an accurate value of resistanceto sagging moments of composite beam might not be obtainedby a simple plastic beam theory. Chiewanichakorn et al. [14]recently proposed a different definition for the effective widthconsidering the through-thickness variation of stress in theconcrete slab. However, their study focuses only on compositebeams in the elastic stage, i.e., serviceability limit state. Effectof shear lag at the strength limit state is different from that atserviceability level.In this paper, a new definition of effective width is presentedfor ultimate strength calculations of composite beams undersagging moments using the commonly accepted rectangular-stress block assumption. This new definition ensures that thebending capacity of the simplified composite beam (effectivewidth plus block stress distribution) is the same as theactual composite beam (actual slab width plus actual stressdistribution). Through an experimental study and finite elementanalysis, the distribution of longitudinal strains and stressesacross the concrete slab are examined and expressed with somesimplified formulae. Based on the new definition and simplifiedformulae, the effective width of the concrete slab and the depthof the compressive stress block of the composite beam withvarying parameters under sagging moments are calculated.
2. New definition of effective width under sagging moment
Now consider as shown inFig. 1a cross-section of composite beams under a sagging moment with a steel sectionof Class 1 or 2 according to EC4 [10]. For composite beams at the strength limit state, the resistance of section to saggingmoments,
u
, can be obtained by calculating the plasticmoment and considering a few assumptions commonly used inthe literature[15]: (1) The tensile strength of concrete is neglected.(2) The concrete in compression resists a constant stressof 
c
over a rectangular-stress block with a width of 
β
b
anddepth of 
ξ
 z
c
0
, where
b
is the physical width and
b
e
=
β
b
isthe effective width of the concrete slab;
z
c
is the compressivestress depth from the plastic neutral axis to the top surfaceof the concrete slab in general and
z
c
0
=
z
c
(
 y
=
0
)
is the
 z
c
value along the vertical
y
-axis particularly, as shown inFig. 1(b). Therefore,
ξ
 z
c
0
represents an equivalent depth of thecompressive stress block.(3) The effective area of the structural steel member isstressed to its design strength
in tension or compression asshown inFig. 1(b). The width and depth of the stress block are the key factorsaffecting the value of 
u
. In the traditional design method itis generally assumed that
z
c
is constant across the width of theconcrete slab; i.e.,
ξ
is 1. The effective width
b
e
is traditionallyobtained as
b
e
=
 
h
c
0
 
b
/
2
b
/
2
σ 
c
d
 y
d
 z
 
h
c
0
σ 
c
|
 y
=
0
d
 z
.
(1)Application of 
b
e
from Eq.(1)will lead to a stress block that has a total force equivalent to that based on the actual
 
1398
J.-G. Nie et al. / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1396–1407 
Fig. 1. Assumption for ultimate strength analysis.Fig. 2. Sketch of specimen and test set-up
(
units
=
mm
)
.
stress distribution in the concrete slab, but there is no guaranteethat the resultant forces will be located at the same location.Due to the shear-lag phenomenon the longitudinal stress in theconcrete slab decreases from
y
=
0 to
y
=
b
/
2 and the depth
 z
c
varies across the width of the concrete slab as shown inFig. 1(a). Therefore, the stress block with a width of 
b
e
fromEq.(1)may not have a total bending moment equivalent to thatbased on the actual stress distribution in the concrete slab, i.e.,the accurate value of 
u
may not be obtained by the traditionalmethod when using the definition of effective width in Eq.(1).In order to ensure that the stress distribution in the concreteslab as shown inFig. 1(a) and (b) is equivalent to ultimatestrength analysis in terms of both axial force and moment, wewill have to derive the effective width and the depth of the stressblock by both force and moment equivalencies as:
β
b
ξ
 z
c
0
c
=
 
h
c
0
 
b
/
2
b
/
2
σ 
c
(
 y
,
 z
)
d
 y
d
 z
(2)
ξ
 z
c
0
2
=
 
h
c
0
 
b
/
2
b
/
2
(
h
c
 z
)σ 
c
(
 y
,
 z
)
d
 y
d
 z
 
h
c
0
 
b
/
2
b
/
2
σ 
c
(
 y
,
 z
)
d
 y
d
 z
.
(3)Considering the force equilibrium in the entire beam sectionwe have
 A
s
A
s
=
 
h
c
0
 
b
/
2
b
/
2
σ 
c
(
 y
,
 z
)
d
 y
d
 z
,
(4)where
A
s
and
A
s
is tension and compression area of steelsection, respectively.In order to predict the actual strain and stress distributionsacross the section, finite element method was used to analysethe composite beams with varying parameters under saggingmoments. The three variables
β
,
ξ
and
z
c
0
were then solvedfrom Eqs.(2)–(4)after the distribution of 
σ 
c
in the concrete slabwas obtained and the bending resistance to sagging momentof composite beams can then be obtained by a traditionalplastic beam approach. To confirm the numerical results, anexperimental study was also conducted and is described next.
3. Experimental study
A steel–concrete composite floor model as shown inFig. 2was tested to investigate the shear-lag phenomenon in theconcreteslabofthecompositebeaminbothelasticandinelasticstages and the experimental results were used to verify theaccuracy of the finite element model described in next section.The model consists of three identical longitudinal girders andtwo transverse girders at the ends of the longitudinal girders.A cast-in-place concrete slab with a height of 60 mm wasconnected to the girders by head studs. The experimental modelwith three girders represents more closely the real compositestructures and can give more realistic results than traditionalsingle-beam specimens.

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