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Finn Metcalfe 2008 Judgments of learning are influenced by memory for past test

Finn Metcalfe 2008 Judgments of learning are influenced by memory for past test

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The Underconfidence with Practice (UPW) effect [Koriat, A., Sheffer, L., & Ma’ayan, H. (2002). Comparing objective
and subjective learning curves: Judgment of learning exhibit increased underconfidence with practice. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: General, 131, 147–162.], found in multi-trial learning, is marked by a pattern of underconfidence
accompanied by an increase in resolution between the judgments and test on and after the second trial. We tested
whether the memory for past test (MPT) heuristic [Finn, B., & Metcalfe, J. (2007). The role of memory for past test in
the underconfidence with practice effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 33,
238–244.] could explain the resolution and calibration effects. To selectively alter Trial 1 test performance, and hence
MPT, we manipulated the number of repetitions (Experiment 1) or the study time (Experiment 2) on Trial 1, but then
the manipulation was reversed on Trial 2, thereby equating final performance. Despite equivalent Trial 2 recall performance,
Trial 2 JOLs reflected the manipulated Trial 1 test performance, providing support for the MPT hypothesis.
Follow up experiments tested alternative explanations. We found that people could remember past test and that use
of this information would produce both underconfidence and improved resolution. In contrast, neither memory for
Trial 1 encoding fluency nor memory for Trial 1 JOLs was able to explain both aspects of the UWP effect. These experiments
support the proposal that people use the memory for past test heuristic to make second trial immediate JOLs,
and that its use can account for the UWP effect.
The Underconfidence with Practice (UPW) effect [Koriat, A., Sheffer, L., & Ma’ayan, H. (2002). Comparing objective
and subjective learning curves: Judgment of learning exhibit increased underconfidence with practice. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: General, 131, 147–162.], found in multi-trial learning, is marked by a pattern of underconfidence
accompanied by an increase in resolution between the judgments and test on and after the second trial. We tested
whether the memory for past test (MPT) heuristic [Finn, B., & Metcalfe, J. (2007). The role of memory for past test in
the underconfidence with practice effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 33,
238–244.] could explain the resolution and calibration effects. To selectively alter Trial 1 test performance, and hence
MPT, we manipulated the number of repetitions (Experiment 1) or the study time (Experiment 2) on Trial 1, but then
the manipulation was reversed on Trial 2, thereby equating final performance. Despite equivalent Trial 2 recall performance,
Trial 2 JOLs reflected the manipulated Trial 1 test performance, providing support for the MPT hypothesis.
Follow up experiments tested alternative explanations. We found that people could remember past test and that use
of this information would produce both underconfidence and improved resolution. In contrast, neither memory for
Trial 1 encoding fluency nor memory for Trial 1 JOLs was able to explain both aspects of the UWP effect. These experiments
support the proposal that people use the memory for past test heuristic to make second trial immediate JOLs,
and that its use can account for the UWP effect.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: hoorie on May 07, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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