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SNAP Benefits: Participation Still Below Poverty Rate

SNAP Benefits: Participation Still Below Poverty Rate

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Published by CSGovts
Enrollment in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) grew from 28 million in 2008 to 44.5 million in 2011 due to the economic fallout of the recession. Program growth slowed from 2011 to 2012, posting just a 4.2 percent annual increase. As SNAP enrollment rose during and after the recession, the gap between poverty and SNAP enrollment began to narrow. However, in 2011, the latest year for poverty data, per capita food stamp enrollment was still below the poverty rate.
Enrollment in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) grew from 28 million in 2008 to 44.5 million in 2011 due to the economic fallout of the recession. Program growth slowed from 2011 to 2012, posting just a 4.2 percent annual increase. As SNAP enrollment rose during and after the recession, the gap between poverty and SNAP enrollment began to narrow. However, in 2011, the latest year for poverty data, per capita food stamp enrollment was still below the poverty rate.

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Published by: CSGovts on May 07, 2013
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07/08/2013

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CAPITOL
fcts & figures
HeLtH
 tHe counciL of stte governents
i    0  3 
SNAP Benets: Participation Still Below Poverty Rate
Following signicant enrollment growth in the SupplementalNutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) from 2008 to 2011 due tothe economic fallout of the recession, program growth slowedfrom 2011 to 2012.
•EnrollmentinSNAP,formerlycalledfoodstamps,grewfrom28millionin2008to44.5millionin2011,a58percentincreaseoverthethree-yearperiod.
1
•Astheeconomybegantoimprove,thenationalgrowthinthenumberofpeopleenrolledbetween2011and2012wasjust4.2percent.
2

All states experienced increases in SNAP enrollment followingthe 2008 recession. A few states reversed that trend in 2012,however, with enrollment actually decreasing.
•Infourstates—Florida,Idaho,NevadaandUtah—SNAPenrollmentmorethandoubledfrom2008to2011.ForFlorida,thelargestofthetriple-digitpercapitagrowthstates,enrollmentgrew104percent,ris-ingfrom1.45millionto3.07millionresidentsreceivingassistancewithfoodexpenses.•Fourofthevestateswiththeslowestenrollmentgrowthinthe2008-11periodwereSouthernstates—Arkansas,Kentucky,LouisianaandWestVirginia—wherepercapitaenrollmentinSNAPwasalreadyhigh.ThefthstatewasNorthDakota.
The increase in SNAP enrollment following the 2008 recessionbrings per capita enrollment close to national poverty levels.
•In2006,thepercentagepointgapbetweenthepercent-ageofpeoplebelowpoverty—12.3percent—andthepercentagereceivingfoodstamps—9percentwas3.3,representingabout10millionAmericans.•By2011,thelatestyearforofcialU.S.povertyrates,thegaphadalmostbeenclosed.FifteenpercentofAmericanslivedbelowpovertyand14percentre-ceivedSNAPbenets.
SNAP is a program designed to be countercyclical. As economicconditions worsen, the reach of the program expands as morepeople depend on SNAP. When the economy recovers, theprogram contracts.
•SNAPbenetsplayacrucialroleinboostingfamilies’monthlyincome.Tobeeligibleforassistance,grossmonthlyincomegenerallymustbebelow130percentofthefederalpovertylevel.Forafamilyofthreein2013,thatwouldmeananannualincomeofnomorethan$24,828ayear.Allsourcesofincomecount,in-cludingunemploymentandSocialSecurity.
3
•Theaveragemonthlybenetforafamilyofthreeis$412permonth.
4
•Morethan75percentofallSNAPparticipantsareinfamilieswithchildren.•Arecentstudypublishedinthe
 Archives of Pediatricsand Adolescent Medicine
estimatedthat49.2percentofallAmericanchildrenwillliveinahouseholdde-pendingonSNAPatsomepointintheirchildhood.
5
SNAP benets provide a signicant boost to local economies.Federal stimulus legislation increased the monthly SNAPbenet to provide a greater boost to communities, but benetswill fall again in November 2013.
•TheAmericanRecoveryandReinvestmentActincreasedmonthlySNAPbenetsby13.6percentbeginningApril1,2009,pumpinganestimated$18bil-lionintostateeconomiesbetween2009and2012.Totalincreasedeconomicactivityinthestateswillexceed$34billion.
 
Persons Participating in SNAP Program, FY 2008-2012
•StartingNov.1,2013,allSNAPparticipantswillseeabenetcut.Forfamiliesofthree,thecutwilllikelybe$20to$25permonth,or$240to$300annually.
6
•Every$1inSNAPbenetsgenerates$1.79intotaleconomicactivity,accordingtotheU.S.De-partmentofAgriculture.
7
•MarkZandiofMoody’s,acreditratingagencythatperformsinternationalnancialresearchandanalysis,estimatesthemultipliertobe$1.72,thehighestmultiplieroftheRecoveryActmeasuresMoody’sstudied.
8

REFERENCES
1
Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Annual State Level Data, 2008-2012.
http://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/15SNAPpartPP.htm
 
2
Ibid.
3
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. “A Quick Guide to SNAP Eligibility and Benets.”Updated Jan.31, 2013.
http://www.cbpp.org/cms/index.cfm?fa=view&id=1269
4
Ibid.
5
Rank M, Hirschl T. “Estimating the risk of food stamp use and impoverishment during childhood.”ArchPediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163: 994–99.
6
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. “SNAP Benets Will Be Cut for All Participants in November2013.”February 8, 2013.
http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=3899
 
7
Hansen, Kenneth. “The Food Assistance National Input-Output Multiplier (FANIOM) Model andStimulus Eects of SNAP.”Economic Research Report Number 103. U.S. Department of Agriculture,October 2010.
8
Zandi, Mark. “Too Soon to Pull Back Fiscal Policy Support.”Moody’s Analytics. Dec. 6, 2010.
Debra Miller, CSG Director of Health Policy |dmiller@csg.org
0102030405060708090100
FY2008FY2009FY2010FY2011FY2012
     M     i     l     l     i    o    n    s    o     f     P    e    o    p     l    e
0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%16%
2006200720082009201020112012

PovertySNAP
SNAP Participation, per capita, and Poverty Rate, 2006-2012
 tHe counciL of stte governents

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