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Chlorine Handbook

Chlorine Handbook

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Published by nimm1962

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Published by: nimm1962 on Apr 06, 2009
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History and Growth of Chlorine....................
2
Production Process......................................
3
Characteristics..............................................
4
Chlorine Containers......................................
4
Cylinders..................................................
5
Ton Containers.........................................
8
Tank Cars...............................................
11
Cargo Tank Trucks.................................
14
Handling Equipment...................................
15
Safety and Emergency Information............
17
Technical Data............................................
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OxyChemChlorineHandbook
Foreword
This handbook outlines the methods for handling,storing, and using chlorine. It also includes informationon the manufacture and physical properties of chlorine.Additional information and contacts can be foundon the internet at www.oxychem.comOccidental Chemical CorporationBasic Chemicals GroupOccidental Tower5005 LBJ FreewayDallas, Texas 75244
THE INFORMATION PRESENTED HEREIN WAS PREPARED BY TECHNICAL PERSONNEL AND IS TRUE AND ACCURATE TO THE BEST OF OURKNOWLEDGE.
OXYCHEM DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, EXPRESS ORIMPLIED, REGARDING PERFORMANCE, STABILITY OR ANY OTHER CHARACTERISTIC.
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS NOT TO BECONSTRUED AS AN EXPRESS WARRANTY CONCERNING THE PERFORMANCE, STABILITY OR ANY OTHER CHARACTERISTIC OF ANY OXY-CHEM PRODUCT. THIS INFORMATION IS NOT INTENDED TO BE ALL-INCLUSIVE AS TO MANNER OR CONDITIONS OF USE. HANDLING, STOR-AGE, DISPOSAL AND OTHER ACTIVITIES MAY INVOLVE OTHER OR ADDITIONAL LEGAL, SAFETY OR PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS. WHILEOUR TECHNICAL PERSONNEL WILL RESPOND TO ANY QUESTIONS REGARDING SAFE HANDLING AND USE PROCEDURES, SAFE HANDLINGAND USE REMAINS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE CUSTOMER. NO SUGGESTIONS FOR USE ARE INTENDED AS, AND NOTHING HEREIN SHALLBE CONSTRUED AS A RECOMMENDATION TO INFRINGE ANY EXISTING PATENT OR TO VIOLATE ANY FEDERAL, STATE OR LOCAL LAW.
Occidental Chemical Corporation 11/2006
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Cl
35.453
17
Chlorine
1, 3, 5, 7
+
-
239.1172.163.17[Ne]3s
2
p
5
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History andGrowth of Chlorine
The earliest annals of chemistrymention chlorine compounds. In 77A.D., Pliny the Elder published oneof the first practical collections ofchemical reactions. His formula forgold purification generated chlorineas a by-product in the form ofhydrogen chloride. But more than800 years passed before writtenrecords showed that the Arabs hadlearned to react chlorine with waterto produce hydrochloric acid.Around 1200 A. D., alchemistsdiscovered that a mixture ofhydrochloric and nitric acids dis-solved gold. This procedure gener-ates chlorine, but there is no recordthat a heavy greenish gas wasevolved. In 1630, Belgian JeanBaptiste van Helmont wrote of a“salt gas” that we know containedchlorine, but it wasn’t until 1774 thatSwedish apothecary, Carl WilhelmScheele, generated, collected, andstudied chlorine as an end in itself.Even Scheele’s discovery wasnearly accidental. He collected chlo-rine out of simple curiosity. Perhapshe too would have treated the gascasually if he hadn’t, on someimpulse, placed some leaves andflowers into a bottle of chlorine.Within minutes the plants hadturned white, and man had the firsthistorical record of the bleachingaction of chlorine.Scheele’s discovery came whenboth modern chemistry and theindustrial revolution were takingtheir first halting steps down pathsthat would soon change the courseof history. Antoine Lavoisier, thefather of modern chemistry, tooknote of Scheele’s work and quicklybecame embroiled in a controversyover whether chlorine was an ele-ment or a compound. Meanwhile,textile producers in the French townof Javelle heard of the bleachingaction of this gas, and in 1789 bub-bled it through a potash solutionproducing
eau de Javelle, Javelle Water,
the first commercial liquidchlorine bleach.The eruption of the French Revo-lution cut short the intellectual fer-ment begun by Lavoisier and hisfollowers. Lavoisier himself wasguillotined in 1793, but his chem-istry had crossed the English Chan-nel. Once again, scientific curiosityparalleled commercial necessity.Humphry Davy, the English fatherof electrolysis, demonstrated thatchlorine was an element with prop-erties useful to Britain’s rapidlyexpanding textile and paper indus-tries.In the 1830’s Michael Faraday,Davy’s lab assistant, produced adefinitive work on both the elec-trolytic generation of chlorine andthe ease of its liquefaction. In 1851,Charles Watt obtained the firstEnglish patent for an electrolyticchlorine production cell.Through the 1880’s and 1890’sproducers in Germany, England,Canada, and the United Statesrefined chlorine technology. Around1890, German producers learnedthat, while wet liquid chlorine wasalmost impossible to package,removal of all water allowed safeshipment in ordinary iron or steelpressure vessels.By the early 1900’s, chlorine wasproduced in mercury anddiaphragm electrolytic cells andshipped in liquid form as a matter ofcourse. A modern chlorine industryhad formed. By 1913, the first per-manent liquid chlorine water purifi-cation system had been installed inPhiladelphia. The following year,Altoona, Pennsylvania, became thefirst city to treat sewage with liquidchlorine.World War I brought added impe-tus to North American chlorine pro-duction. Submarine warfare practi-cally eliminated imports ofchemicals from Europe at a timewhen markets for many chemicals,including chlorine, were growingrapidly. By the end of the war, theUnited States had a large and firmlyentrenched domestic chlorineindustry.In the 1930’s, the world’s chemi-cal industry erupted in a period ofextraordinary growth that still con-tinues. Bleaching properties of chlo-rine became just one of its majoruses. Its disinfecting propertiesremained vital to health, butbecame a minor market for a chem-ical that would soon affect almostevery human activity.Today, we use chlorine as a rawmaterial in the manufacture ofpolyvinyl chloride, a plastic used infabricating flooring, pipe, wallpaper,clothing, furniture, and a wide rangeof household products. . We treatour illnesses with complex drugsand spray our crops with insecti-cides, herbicides, and fungicideswhich contain chlorine as part oftheir basic structure. Chlorinatedchemicals also enable us to refrig-erate and freeze our food, cool ourhomes, offices and cars, and eveninsulate our buildings from the heatand cold.One of the most important uses ofchlorine is helping produce chemi-cals that contain no chlorine at all.Chlorine and chlorine chemicalshelp promote reactions that pro-duce chemicals for antifreeze, tex-tile lubricants, fabric softeners,book-binding pastes, solvents forlacquers, brake fluids, polyesterfibers, and a host of other products.
 
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ProductionProcess
The basic raw material for theprocess, salt, comes from eithermines or underground wells. Minedsalt is dissolved with water to formraw brine. In other cases, water ispumped into salt deposits, formingbrine in the earth that is tapped anddrawn off from the resulting brinewell.Raw brine contains impurities thatinterfere with chlorine-caustic pro-duction. They are removed bychemical treatment, settling, and fil-tration. The purified brine ispumped to the cell room. The cellroom contains one of three types ofelectrolytic cells for decomposing
ChlorineProcess
brine into chlorine, caustic soda,and hydrogen. These three celltypes are diaphragm, membrane, ormercury cells.The chlorine that leaves the cell ishot and wet, and therefore very cor-rosive. It must be cooled and driedbefore it can be processed in ordi-nary steel equipment. In addition,the chlorine stream is contaminatedwith air, hydrogen, and some car-bon dioxide (due to small amountsof carbon bearing chemicals in thebrine).Once the chlorine stream iscooled and dried, compressors andrefrigeration machines are used toliquefy the gas. Chlorine is mosteasily handled as a liquid in special-ly designed pressure containers.Any gaseous contaminants in thechlorine stream are removed. Smallamounts of chlorine mixed withthem are nearly completely recov-ered. The recovered chlorine isthen returned to the liquefactionprocess.
Raw BrineProductionChlorineCooling andDryingChlorine-Caustic CellRoomChlorineCompressorsChlorineLiquefiersChlorineStorage andShippingCausticSolutionStorageCausticPurificationSalt RemovalCentrifuges (forDiaphragm), Fil-ters, and CoolersCaustic Storageand ShippingTerminalCaustic SolutionEvaporation (forDiaphragm andMembrane)Use as Fuel orSaleHydrogenProcessingChlorineRecoveryBrinePurificationBrineResaturationHydrogen

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