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Itgs, History of Computers

Itgs, History of Computers

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Published by Gabriela Mora
BY MARIA FERNANDA RUIZ
BY MARIA FERNANDA RUIZ

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Gabriela Mora on May 07, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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Running Head: THE HISTORY OF COMPUTERS 1The History of the Development Process of Computers Since 1822María Fernanda Ruiz HungríaUnidad Educativa Experimental Bilingüe Nuevo Mundo
 
Running Head: THE HISTORY OF COMPUTERS 2AbstractA computer is an electronic device which is capable of making mathematical operations and
calculations. That’s why simple devices like the abacus or the slide rule are the precursors of 
nowadays modern computers. It all begins in the 19th century with English math professor,Charles Babbage and his design of the Analytical Engine. Between 1938 and 1938 the Z1appeared, a creation of a German man called Konrad Zuse, and it was the first binary programmable computer. Also, between these years the ABC computer was created andalthough it was the first digital computer, the J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly computer,ENIAC, was patented and known as the first working digital device. The developments of computers are based on three generations. The first one (1937
 – 
1946) includes the ABC(Atanasoff-Berry Computer), Colossus, and ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator andComputer) as the more important and relevant. In the second generation (1947
 – 
1962) we havetransistors and vacuum tubes, the IBM (International Business Machine) with its differentcomputer models, and computers that included programming language, memory and operatingsystems. Finally, the third generation (1963
 – 
present) which introduces integrated circuits, withthese computers now was smaller, more powerful, and they could run many programs at thesame time. Then MS-
Dos (Microsoft Disk Operating System) was born with the IBM’s personalcomputer, used at home and at work. Later Apple brought Macintosh. Finally the 90’s brought
us Windows OS. So, this is the computer process and development, which will continue andnever end.
 
Running Head: THE HISTORY OF COMPUTERS 3The History of the Development Process of Computers Since 1822Who invented computers? Well, this question has no specific answer. Before 1935 theword computer was assigned to people who realized arithmetical operations. Then, between
1935 and 1945 “computer” was referred to a machine. Nowadays, "The modern machin
edefinition is based on von Neumann's concepts: a device that accepts input, processes data, storesdata, and produces output." (Von Neumann, n.d.)The background of computers starts with the abacus in the 14th century. This instrumentwas used to perform calculations (very simple ones.) Then in the 17th century the slide ruleappeared, a manual device with which you can make calculations by just simply moving themovable piece side to side. A few years later, in 1822, Charles Babbage began to develop theDifference Engine which was a mechanical calculator, but unfortunately because of financial problems he never completed the full version of his machine. Then in 1837, Babbage proposed
the Analytical Engine, “the first general mechanical computer”, but
also he could never build it.
In 1936, Konrad Zuse “a construction engineer for the Henschel Aircraft Company inBerlin, Germany at the beginning of WWII.” created the Z1, the first programmable computer 
which used binary digits. Then in 1941, he made Z3, which had almost all of the characteristics
of John Von Neumann’s definition of a computer. In the 1940’s, the Colossus, a very usefulvacuum tube machine for the British, broke Hitler’s code during WWII. Then, between 1939
and 1942, Professor John Atanasoff and a graduate student Clifford Berry made the ABC(Atanasoff-Berry Computer) which included a binary arithmetical system and Boolean logic,with no CPU. This was the first digital computer. But, Presper Eckert and John Mauchly werethe first ones to patent the digital computer, the ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator And

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