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digital modulation from ask to oqpsk

digital modulation from ask to oqpsk

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02/01/2013

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ig ita l D a taL in k
D i g i t a l C o r n r n u n i ~ a t i o n sA b o v e5 0
M HZ
D ig ita l M o d u la tio n ,
fro m
A S Kt o O Q P 5 K
Is itQPSK or4-QAM?O r OOK? Don'tworry,just A5K Don (or isthat

D O N ? ) . T h e n g e t o u t y o u r b o w l a n d s o u p s p o o n ; w e 'r e a b o u t t o s e r v e u p a b y te -s iz e p o r tio n o f t h e a lp h a b e t s o u p c a lle d d ig ita l m o d u la tio n (lo ts o f le tte rs fo r a bunch o f ones and zeros!).

A
n y o n e w h o 's
r e a d
the past five
m o n th s '
c o lu m n s
s h o u ld
n o w

have atleast a generalfeel for w hat it ta k e s to g e t a n e tw o rk n o d e o n th e a ir. It w a s m y in te n tio n to g e t e v e ry o n e fa m il- ia r w ith th e p ro c e s s , to g a in th e c o u ra g e to try it th em selv es. I u rg e y o u to try it. D o n 't

b e
in tim id a te d
b y
e x is tin g
n e t-
w orks, or by those w ho look dow n upon
1 2 0 0 - b a u d lin k s -if
th e re 's
a need for
data transport services, fill it.
O n c e y o u 'v e

c u t y o u r te e th a t 1 2 0 0 baud, you m ight w ant greater speed. If y o u

do, be
p re p a re d
fo r
a

c h a lle n g e . T ry in g to sta rt a n e w n e tw o rk a t56k, for e x a m p le , is a trip le c h a lle n g e : fig u rin g o u t th e n e tw o rk , th e R F , a n d h o w to p a y for it all can be discouraging if taken all at once. Instead, take it step by step.The reason I'm

s o e n th u s ia s tic a b o u t~ le x ~ e t
(see June and July "D igital D ata Link")
is that it's very scalable-it
w ill g ro w in

s iz e a n d s p e e d w ith y o u r n e tw o rk . A g a in , I a ls o h a v e to e m p h a s iz e :F le x N e t is a n e x c e lle n t

n e tw o rk ,
but when
y o u
ru n
T C P /IP th ro u g h it, y o u 're re a lly g e ttin g
in to th e p o w e rfu l stu ff. T ry it!
D ig ita l M o d u la tio n
T e c h n iq u e s

T h is m o n th , w e 'll ta k e a (n e c e s s a rily b rie f) lo o k in a n o th e r d ire c tio n o f d ig ita l d a ta : d a ta

m o d u la tio n

te c h n iq u e s . A l- th o u g h it's p o s s ib le to ju s t p u s h b its in to a tra n sm itte r, a little e ffo rt a n d th o u g h t c a n m a k e th e p ro c e s s m u c h m o re e ffic ie n t.

2xb a u d ra te
F ig u r eI . T h e s p e c tr u m b a n d w id th o f a s in g le fr e q u e n c y tr a n s m itte r th a t's tu r n e d o n a n d o ffe v e r y
so often. The bandw idth of the m ain carrier is equal to tw ice the baud rate, expressed inH z.
There are three goals in
a n y
d ig ita l
m o d u la tio n s c h e m e :
1 . M in im iz e tra n s m itte d b a n d w id th ;
2 . M in im iz e th e B it E rro r R a te (B E R )
f o r a g iv e n p o w e r le v e l; a n d
3 .
M a x im iz e
r e s is ta n c e
t o
v a rio u s
form s of interference.
D a ta c o m m u n ic a tio n s a re c o n s id e re d
e ith e rp o w e r -lim ite do r b a n d w id th -lim it-
e d .Com m ercial services are generally

b a n d w id th -lim ite d : th e y o n ly c a n g e t a n a llo c a tio n f o r a s m a ll s lic e o f s p e c tru m (o fte n p a y in g m illio n s fo r th e p riv ile g e ), so they

h a v e to

m a x im iz e th ro u g h p u t (efficiency of data transfer) w ith w hat th e y 'v e g o t. C o m p a re d to s p e c tru m , R F pow er is cheap. In the am ateur service,

d a ta
c o m m u n ic a tio n s
a re

g e n e ra lly p o w e r-lim ite d : T h e r e 's p le n ty o f s p e c - tru m to p la y w ith (fo r fre e !), e s p e c ia lly in the m icrow ave bands, so the costs asso- c ia te d

w ith
g r e a te r
tran sm it

pow er b e c o m e a s ig n ific a n t fra c tio n o f th e to ta l system cost.

W h a t th is m e a n s is th a t h a m s h a v e a n
a d v a n ta g e
o v e r
com m ercial services,
n a m e ly
th e
a b ility
t o
tra d e
pow er
+ r e q u i r e m e n t sf o r b a n d w i d t h . I t s h o u l d b e
n o te d
th a t,
i n
g e n e r a l,
m o d u la tio n
s c h e m e s th a t u s e b a n d w id th

less effi- ciently tend to require less pow er for a g iv e n B E R (a n d th e lo w e r th e B E R , th e h ig h e r th e th ro u g h p u t).

Before w e get into the details,If ir s t
w a n t to a c k n o w le d g e th a t a c o n s id e ra b le
-1 -
;-
.* c-
I
I
-
- _
,,-
B y D o n R o to lo , N 2 lR .Z (N 2 1 R Z @ c o m p u s e rv e .c o m )
7 0
C Q
V H F
S e p te m b e r1 9 9 8
H a m R a d io A b o v e5 0 M H z
Figure2 . The spectrum view of tw o optim ally spaced FSK carriers.
F ig u r e3 .T h e o u tp u t s p e c tr u m o f a 4 - F S K s ig n a l, w h ic h s e n d s2 b its
No energyfrom
the "one" carrier is detected by the "zero" receiv-
per signaling period. T he di-bit num bers of 00,0 1 , 1 0 , and 11 corre-
e r , a n d v ic e v e r s a , b e c a u s e e a c h s ig n a l's a m p litu d e is a lw a y s z e r o a t
spond to carrier num ber1 ,2 ,3 ,o r4 b e in g o n , w ith th e o th e r th r e e b e in g
th e o th e r s ig n a l's fr e q u e n c y .
o ff. F o rO F D M
(see text),the carriers are sw itched on and off inde-
p e n d e n tly , th u s s e n d in g 4 b its p e r s ig n a lin g p e r io d .
p o rtio n o f th e in fo rm a tio n p re s e n te d h e re
is ta k e n fro m th e b o o kW ir e le s s D ig ita l
C o m m u n ic a tio n s : D e s ig n a n d T h e o r yb y
T om
M c D e rm o tt, N SEG . T h is b o o k is
p u b lis h e d
b y
th e frie n d ly
fo lk s a t th e
T u c s o n
A m a te u r
P a c k e t
R a d io
C o rp .

(T A P R ), a n d it's a v a ila b le d ire c tly fro m th e m o r fro m y o u r lo c a l b o o k s to re . T h is b o o k is ja m -p a c k e d w ith ju s t w h a t th e title s a y s . I c a n o n ly d re a m o f h a v in g th e le v e l o f u n d e rs ta n d in g a n d e x p e rtis e o n th e to p ic th a t T o m h a s , a n d I w is h I c o u ld e x p la in s u c h c o m p le x s u b je c ts a s w e ll a s h e d o e s in th is b o o k . T h e w ritin g is c le a r, c o n c is e , a n d u n d e rs ta n d a b le , w h ile re - ta in in g a ll o f th e s o m e tim e s d iffic u lt c o n - tent so essentialto com prehension.E ven if y o u 're o n ly m ild ly in te re s te d in w ire - le s s d a ta , I h e a rtily re c o m m e n d th is b o o k .

N o w , le t's lo o k a t s o m e c o m m o n ty p e s
o f d a ta m o d u la tio n (get ready to digest
a
s in g le -fre q u e n c y
tran sm itter
th a t's
turned on and off every so often. (E ach
F S K fre q u e n c y is e s s e n tia lly a C W
c a r-
rier sw itched on or off,w hich is the sam e
as an A M
tran sm itter w ith tw o m o d u la-
tio n le v e ls : 0 %
a n d

100% ).The signal le v e l d ro p s o ff to z e ro a t a c e rta in d is - tance from the carrier, then rises again to s o m e lo w e r le v e l-th is

is a s id e b a n d .
T he
d is ta n c e
b e tw e e n
n u ll
p o in ts
i s

e x a c tly tw ic e th e b a u d ra te , e x p re s s e d in H z(see "B its and B auds," elsew here in th is article).

L o o k in g a t F ig u re 2 , w e s e e th a t a g o o d place for the second carrier frequency w o u ld b e at th e n u ll in th e firs t fre q u e n - c y 's s p e c tru m . T h is w o u ld m a k e it e a s i- e s t to te ll o n e fre q u e n c y fro m

th e o th e r,

m a k in g it a n " a ll o r n o th in g " d e c is io n . If th e c a rrie rs w e re to o c lo s e , w e w o u ld lo s e s o m e o f th is " a ll o r n o th in g ," m a k in g it

O rth o g o n a lity a ls o c o m e s in d e g re e s . If th e c a rrie rs w e re c lo s e r th a n id e a l, th e y w o u ld

b e
le s s
th a n
1 0 0 %
o rth o g o n a l
b e c a u s e
som e
o f
th e
d e s ire d
s ig n a l's

e n e rg y w o u ld b e d e te c ta b le b y th e u n d e - sired signal's detector.If the desired fre- quency experienced a fade, but not the p o rtio n d e te c te d b y th e o th e r d e te c to r, w e m ig h t n o t b e 'a b le to d e c id e if it is a o n e o razero. Such an occurrence w ould have th e u n d e s ira b le e ffe c t o f in c re a s in g th e B E R . W ith a fu lly o rth o g o n a l s ig n a l, it w o u ld b e m u c h m o re d iffic u lt to m a k e such an error.

O rth o g o n a lity c a n b e a c c o m p lis h e d a t
th e
tran sm itted
fre q u e n c y ,
a s
i n
th is
e x a m p le , a s w e ll a s a t th e b a s e b a n d d a ta
le v e l.- h is w a s d is c u s s e d in g re a te r d e ta il
in th e c o lu m n o n S p re a d S p e c tru m in th e
M ay,1 9 9 7 ,issue ofCQ VHF.
th a t a lp h a b e t so u p !--e d .).
n e c e s s a ry to h a v e a b e tte r s ig n a l q u a lity
2
4
6
8
to e n s u re a g iv e n B E R .
9
9
9
* * '
F 5 K
F S K u sin g tw o c a rrie rs is a ls o c a lle d2 -
F SKa n d s e n d s 1 b it p e r s ig n a lin g p e rio d
O ne
o f
th e
sim plest
m o d u la tio n
O rt h " g o n a lit~
(b it ra te= b a u d ra te ). T o in c re a s e th e
schem es
i s
F r e q u e n c y
S h ift
K e y in g
(F SK J.B a s ic a lly , y o u tra n s m it o n o n e fre -
quency to send a binary "one,"
and on
a n o th e r
fre q u e n c y
t o
s e n d
a
b in a ry
" z e ro ."

It is a n a d v a n ta g e fo r th e fre - q u e n c ie s to b e n e a r e a c h o th e r, a llo w in g a s in g le re c e iv e r to b e u s e d , b u t n o t s o n e a r th a t th e y in te rfe re w ith e a c h o th e r.

T h e id e a l d is ta n c e a p a rt c a n b e c a lc u -
la te d
(If y o u w a n t to k n o w
how , buy
T o m 's b o o k !). T a k e a lo o k a t F ig u re 1 ,
w h ic h s h o w s th e s p e c tru m b a n d w id th o f

In th e a b o v e d is c u s s io n , it w a s im p lie d th a t, if th e s p a c in g b e tw e e n s ig n a ls w a s to o c lo s e , th e e n e rg y o f o n e c a rrie r w o u ld re d u c e th e s ig n a l m a rg in o n th e o th e r c a r- rier, and vice-versa. W hile this is essen- tia lly tru e , o n e th in g w a s le ft o u t: o n ly one of the carriers is on at any

g iv e n

m o m e n t. W e a re s e n d in g e ith e r a o n e , o r a z e ro , b u t n e v e r b o th a t th e s a m e tim e . W e can say that these tw o carriers are

o r th o g o n a l w ith e a c h o th e r, th a t is , o n e
c a n n o t b e m is ta k e n fo r th e o th e r.
num ber of bits sent per baud, w e can use
m ore
c a rrie rs
(a g a in ,
s e e
"B its
a n d

B a u d s 7 ' ) .F i g u r e3show sthe spectrum of + a4 -F S K s ig n a l, w h ic h s e n d s 2 b its p e r s ig n a lin g p e rio d (b a u d ra te=112 b it ra te , or bit rate= 2

b a u d ra te , o r tw ic e th e
b a u d
ra te ).
T he
d i-b it

(o r 2 -b it-lo n g ) num bers of00,01,10 and 11correspond to c a rrie r n u m b e r 1 ,2 ,3 , o r4 b e in g o n , w ith th e o th e r th re e b e in g o ff.

T h is c a n b e e x te n d e d to a s m a n y c a rri-
e r fre q u e n c ie s a s y o u lik e , w h ic ha c tu a l-
H a m R a d ioA b o v e5 0 M H z
S e p te m b e r 1 9 9 8
C Q
V H F
7 1
" D a ta c o m m u n ic a tio n s a r e c o n s id e r e d e ith e r p o w e r -lim ite d o r
b a n d w id th -lim ite d . C o m m e r c ia l s e r v ic e s a r e g e n e r a lly b a n d w id th -
lim ited.. . .In th e a m a te u r s e r v ic e , d a ta c o m m u n ic a tio n s a r e
g e n e r a lly p o w e r -lim ite d.. . ."

ly im p ro v e s p e rfo rm a n c e . If w e w e re to increase the num ber of carriers to infini- ty , th e B E R w o u ld b e c o m e v e ry sm a ll fo r a g iv e n E b /N o * . H o w e v e r, th e p e n a lty fo r increasing bandw idth is increased sus- c e p tib ility to in te rfe re n c e a n d n o is e .

A
sim ilar
m o d u la tio n
schem e
i s
O rth o g o n a l F re q u e n c y D iv is io n M u lti-
p le x in g , o r O FD M

(refer back to Figure 3 ).I n O F D M , in s te a d o f s w itc h in g o n a n d o ff e a c h c a rrie r o n e a t a tim e , e a c h is c o n - tro lle d

in d e p e n d e n tly ,
m e a n in g
th a t
m o re th a n o n e s ig n a l a t a tim e m a y b e
" o n ."
F o r e x a m p le , w ith
a n
8 -c a rrie r
O FD M

system , an entire byte (8 bits) of d a ta is s e n t d u rin g e a c h s ig n a lin g p e rio d . T h e p e n a lty

h e re is th a t th e p o w e r is e q u a lly d is trib u te d a m o n g th e "o n " c a r- riers. This reduces

th e p o w e r
of any

g iv e n b it, d e c re a s in g th e s ig n a l-to -n o is e (S /N ) ra tio , th u s in c re a s in g th e B E R . A ls o , th e v a ria b ility o f th e s ig n a l le v e l (the pow er per carrier if all 8 are on is m u c h lo w e r th a n if o n ly o n e is o n ) c a u s - e s fu rth e r c o m p lic a tio n s .

The P5K F a m ily

If w e c a n d e te c t p h a s e a c c u ra te ly , w e can use only a single carrier frequency, c h a n g in g o n ly th e c a rrie r's p h a s e to in d i- cate a data bit. Phase is a tim e-shifting (u s u a lly

a d e la y ) o f a p e rio d ic
s ig n a l

(such as a sine or square w ave),expressed in degrees,w here 360 degreesequals one fu ll p e rio d . P e rio d is d e fin e d a s th e tim e fro m a p o in t o n o n e w a v e in a s trin g of s im ila r w a v e s to th e s a m e p o in t o n th e n e x t w a v e . D e te c tin g th e p h a s e o f a c a r- rie r im p lie s th a t w e h a v e a v a ila b le to u s a reference signal to w hich w e can com - p a re th e in c o m in g s ig n a l. A s it tu rn s o u t, it's not difficult to regenerate such a ref- erence carrierfrom

th e in c o m in g s ig n a l.
T h is le a d s u s to P h a s e S h ift K e y in g , o r
PSK . T he m ore accurately w e can regen-

e ra te th e re fe re n c e c a rrie r, th e s m a lle r th e p h a s e c h a n g e w e c a n d e te c t. F o r e x a m - ple, even if our reference carrier sw ings w ild ly , v a ry in g b y + 7 0 d e g re e s , it is s till no problem to detect a 180-degreephase c h a n g e . If w e c a n h o ld th e re fe re n c e to a fe w

d e g re e s , th o u g h , d e te c tin g a p h a s e shift of, say, 10 degrees isn't difficult, e ith e r. T h e d iffic u lty is th a t h o ld in g th e reference carrier so closely requires a g re a te rE b /N o ra tio fo r a g iv e n B E R . T h is m e a n s h a v in g e ith e r m o re s ig n a l (h ig h e r p o w e r) o r le s s n o is e (a q u ie te r c h a n n e l).

F ig u re
4
s h o w s th e p o s s ib le

p h a s e anglesfora4-PSK system ,sending2b its o f d a ta p e r s ig n a lin g tim e . T h e c a rrie r phase can take any one of the four val- u e s , e a c h re p re s e n tin g a d i-b it d a ta n u m - b e r (w e ll, n o t e x a c tly , b u t ju s t a c c e p t th is fo r

now). Because
o f
th e

9 0 -d e g re e p h a s e d iffe re n c e s , th is te c h n iq u e is a ls o c a lle d Q u a d r a tu r e P h a s e S h ift K e y in g , or Q PSK .

O n e p ro b le m w ith Q P S K is th e p o s s i-
b ility o f a 1 8 0 -d e g re e p h a s e s h ift. T h is
a b ru p t
p h a s e
re v e rs a l,
w heq
p a s s e d

th ro u g h a C la s s C a m p lifie r (ty p ic a l fb r F M ), c a u s e s a s ig n ific a n t w id e n in g o f th e tra n s m itte d b a n d w id th . T o h e lp re d u c e th is p ro b le m , w e c a n lim it e a c h p h a s e c h a n g e to+90 degrees if w e offset one of the data stream s by

b it tim e . F ig u re
5(a) show s a regular Q PSK

d i-b it d a ta stream , and an O ffset Q P S K (O Q P S K ) data stream at5 (b ).

P h a s e A m b ig u ity

O n e im p o rta n t p o in t re g a rd in g P S K is th e a b s o lu te p h a s e of th e re fe re n c e c a rri- er. In m any cases, we can regenerate a p h a s e -s ta b le

reference, but we

c a n n o t a lw a y s d e te rm in e th e c o n s ta n t p h a s e o ff- s e tfro m

the transm itted carrier. In other w o rd s , if w e d e te c t a 4 -P S K s ig n a l w ith a 90-degree phase difference com pared to ourreference,we don't know which of the four possible phases the signal w as tran sm itted w ith .

L o o k in g a g a in a t F ig u re4 ,it is co m - p le te ly in c o rre c t to a s s ig n a d i-b it n u m - b e r to e a c h p h a s e , b e c a u s e w e c a n 't te ll w h ic h o f th e fo u r p h a s e s it re a lly is . T h is s o -c a lle d p h a s e a m b ig u ity is re s o lv e d b y o n ly tra n s m ittin g a p h a s e c h a n g e to in d i- c a te

th a t
th e
v a lu e
o f
th e
b it
h a s
c h a n g e d -fro m
0 to 1 o r 1 to 0 . S o , tw o
*E b=
B it E n e rg y , N o
=
N o ise
S p e c tra l
D ensity. Eb/N o is a m ore accurate m easure
Figure 4 .Thisphase diagram show s thefourpossiblephase anglesfor a 4-PSK system . Such
o f c h a n n e l c o n d itio n s th a n th e c o m m o n ly
a s y s te m s e n d s2 b its o f d a ta p e r s ig n a lin g tim e . C o m m e r c ia l m o d e m s u s in g 6 4 - P S K a r e a v a il-
u s e d S ig n a l-to -N o is e(S /N ) ra tio . S h a n n o n 's
a b le , b u t th e y r e q u ir e a v e r y h ig h s ig n a l-to -n o is e r a tio fo r g o o d o p e r a tio n . N o te th a t, d u e to
L im itsta te s th a t,fo r a n a rb itra rily sm a llB E R ,
p h a s e a m b ig u ity , i t 's in c o r r e c t to a s s ig n a s p e c ific d i-b it n u m b e r to a p a r tic u la r p h a s e .W e
the sm allest E b/N o> = -1 .6 dB .
d id it h e r e o n ly to a id in e x p la n a tio n .
7 2
C Q
V H F
S e p te m b e r1 9 9 8
H a m R a d io A b o v e5 0 M H z

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/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->