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17.Watershed Management.full

17.Watershed Management.full

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Published by: TJPRC Publications on May 09, 2013
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Research & Teaching Assistant in Environmental Science, Directorate of Distance Education, Kuvempu University,Shankaraghatta, Karnataka, India
Research & Teaching Assistant in Botany & Biotechnology, Directorate of Distance Education, Kuvempu University,Shankaraghatta, Karnataka, India
The present study reviewed the importance of aquaculture in watershed management. Watershed is not only thehydrological unit but plays crucial role in determining food, social, and economical security and provides life supportservices to rural people. India has numerous farm ponds and check dams that are used for irrigation, watering livestock,and recreation. Even though most of these water bodies are not used for recreational activities, they could provide excellentfishing opportunities if they were properly managed. Ponds can be managed to attract wildlife and to provide a variety of recreational activities. It may be difficult to manage for all of these things simultaneously. Proper management of fish inaqua cultural pond is as much an art as a science. As research continues and the results are developed intorecommendations, pond management will become more successful. The art of pond management will always be anecessity. Global annual aquaculture production has more than tripled within the past 15 years, and by 2015, aquacultureis predicted to account for 39% of total global seafood production by weight
Watershed Management, Community, Water, Aquaculture Ponds, Farm Ponds
Watershed development in India, in different agroclimatic regions, needs immense attention because fisheries inIndia are still in its infancy. It is bound to become a major economic activity in near future and would attract newentrepreneurs who would like to enter the new field and try new innovative technologies, for launching successful projects.The scientists are yet to solve many more impediments of aquaculture and fishery technology.
India‟s population is exploding at the rate of 15
million per annum and expected to reach one billion by the end of the century. The agricultural land and its production are reducing year after year but the people need more nutritious food.The water resource of India is not yet fully capped and has more promising areas. The present fish production of 4.36million tones farms only 25% of 16 million tons required for feeding 50% of the present non-vegetarian population, whichincludes both inland and marine production, against the world 100 million tones fish production (Srivastava 1985;Santanam et al 1987; Belsare 1986; Jhingran 1991).Fish play an important role in the nutrition of people in India. Per capita availability of fish in the country is 9.5kg with production at 5.8 million tonnes during 1999-2000. This production level makes India the second largestaquaculture producing country in the world, China is the leading aquaculture producer. India cultures many differentspecies including Indian major carps (catla, Catla catla; rohu, Labeo rohita; naini,Cyprinus mrigala; and calbasu, Labeocalbasu), marine shrimp, freshwater shrimp, oysters, green and brown mussels, and pearl oysters for domestic andinternational markets. To meet the increased demand for fisheries products by 2010, India must increase its current level of  production to 7-8 million tonnes per year. With marine fishery production/capture steady at 3 million tonnes per year,
International Journal of Agricultural Scienceand Research (IJASR)ISSN 2250-0057Vol. 3, Issue 2, Jun 2013, 155-174© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
Kiran, B. R. & Shankar Murthy, K 
inland aquaculture production must increase from its current level of 2.5 million tonnes to 5 million tonnes by 2010. Indiamust intensify culture production methods for this increased production values to be achieved (Gopakumar 2003).India has got vast potential in marine, brackish water and Inland waters. Watershed areas are being increasedwith the new inbounded water of new hydal projects, major irrigation tanks, minor tanks, village ponds and pools, besides present rivers and irrigation canals.
Watershed development approach in India with government support started in mid 50s, but group efforts existed
even in early twenties. The first government scheme namely „Soil Conservation Works in the Catchments of River ValleyProjects (RVP)‟ was launched in 1962
-63 to control the siltation of multi-purpose reservoirs. The second Mega-Project
„Drought Prone Area Development Programme (DPAP)‟ started in 1972
-73 for drought-proofing the vulnerable areas andmitigating the impact of drought. Later in 1976-
77, „Desert Development Programme‟ (DDP) was also added for 
development of desert areas. The DAC of MOA launched a scheme of propagation of water harvesting/conservationtechnology in rainfed areas in 19 identified locations in 1982-83. In October 1984, MoRD adopted this approach in 22other locations in rainfed areas. In these 41 model watersheds ICAR/SAUs were also involved to provide research andtechnology support. The scheme of National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) was launchedin 1990-91 in 25 States and 2 UTs based on twin concepts of Integrated Watershed management and sustainable farmingsystem. During IX Plan, the scheme was extended to three newly formed States. The scheme of NWDPRA has been
subsumed with “Scheme for Macro Management of Agriculture Supplementation/Complementation of the state efforts
through Work Plans in 2000-01. At present, the scheme is being implemented as a programme in Centrally SponsoredScheme of Macro Management of Agriculture in 28 States and 2 UTs. During the VIII Plan Ministry of RuralDevelopment (MoRD) launched a new initiative in 1994-95 incorporating the essential elements of WARASA guidelinesand providing for NGO participation as implementing agents. Number of projects assisted by bilateral donors andinternational funding agencies like World Bank were also launched in the 80s. Besides, a number of NGOs are alsoworking for Integrated Watershed Development Projects in different parts of the country (Orissa Watershed DevelopmentMission 2012).Watershed development in India has, made three important transitions. Firstly, there has been a shift from a top-down, command-and-control regulatory approach to a more people-centered, bottom-up and participatory approach, whichrecognizes that watershed protection and development is impossible to undertake and sustain successfully without theactive participation of local communities. Secondly, and related to the first, it has been realized that technical solutions thatnormally characterize watershed protection activities in India such as building of engineering structures, policing of forestsfrom local people, etc. are by themselves insufficient, and that social solutions involving collective action by thecommunities, and offering them suitable incentives to participate in watershed development and natural resourcemanagement, are far more sustainable in the long run. Thirdly, it has been accepted that watershed development is far moreeffective when done in an integrated and planned manner, following a logical ridge-to-valley approach, rather than inisolation by each government line department separately (DES Himachal Pradesh 2009; Himachal Pradesh WatershedDevelopment Mission 2009).
About 60 per cent of total arable land (142 million ha) in India is rain-fed, characterized by low productivity, lowincome, low employment with high incidence of poverty and a bulk of fragile and marginal land (Joshi et al 2008).
Watershed Management and Aquaculture in Relation to Fisheries
Rainfall pattern in these areas are highly variable both in terms of total amount and its distribution, which lead to moisturestress during critical stages of crop production and makes agriculture production vulnerable to pre and post production risk.Watershed development projects in the country has been sponsored and implemented by Government of India from early1970s onwards. The journey through the evolution of watershed approach evolved in India is shown in Figure-1 (Wani etal. 2005 and 2006). Various watershed development programs like Drought Prone Area Program (DPAP), DesertDevelopment Program (DDP), River Valley Project (RVP), National Watershed Development Project for Rain-fed Areas(NWDPRA) and Integrated Wasteland Development Program (IWDP) were launched subsequently in various hydro-ecological regions, those were consistently being affected by water stress and draught like situations. Entire watersheddevelopment program was primarily focused on structural-driven compartmental approach of soil conservation andrainwater harvesting during 1980s and before. In spite of putting efforts for maintaining soil conservation practices(example, contour bunding, pits excavations etc.), farmers used to plow out these practices from their fields. It was felt thata straightjacket top-down approach cannot make desired impact in watersheds and mix up of individual and community based interventions are essential ( Suhas P Wani and Kaushal K Garg 2011).The integrated watershed development program with participatory approach was emphasized during mid 1980sand in early 1990s. This approach had focused on raising crop productivity and livelihood improvement in watersheds(Wani et al 2006) along with soil and water conservation measures. The Government of India appointed a committee in1994 under the chairmanship of Prof. C H Hanumantha Rao. The committee thoroughly reviewed existing strategies of watershed program and strongly felt a need for moving away from the conventional approach of the governmentdepartment to the bureaucratic planning without involving local communities (Raju et al 2008). The new guideline wasrecommended in year 1995, which emphasized on collective action and community participation, including participation of  primary stakeholders through community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations and
 Panchayath Raj
Institutions (PRI) (GoI 1994 2008; Hanumantha Rao et al 2000; DOLR 2003; GoI 2008; Joshi et al 2008).Watershed development guidelines were again revised in year 2001 (called Hariyali guidelines) to make further simplification and involvement of PRIs more meaningful in planning, implementation and evaluation and communityempowerment (Raju et al 2008) and guidelines were issued in year 2003 (DOLR 2003). Subsequently, NeeranchalCommittee (in year 2005) evaluated the entire government-sponsored, NGO and donor implemented watershed
development programs in India and suggested a shift in focus “away from a purely engineering and structural focus to adeeper concern with livelihood issues” (Raju et al
2008). Major objectives of the watershed management program are: 1)conservation, up-gradation and utilization of natural endowments such as land, water, plant, animal and human resources ina harmonious and integrated manner with low-cost, simple, effective and replicable technology; 2) generation of massiveemployment; 3) reduction of inequalities between irrigated and rain-fed areas and poverty alleviation (
P Wani andKaushal K Garg 2011).
The land resources of Karnataka especially its dry drought prone lands, which comprises more than 79 % of thetotal arable area, have been poorly managed by the resource poor farmers of the state. Soil loss due to erosion coupled withreduced water resources has led to a situation of rapid soil fertility deterioration, declining/stagnating crop yields, depletionof underground water sources, deforestation, denudation, destruction of natural pasture and diminishing biomass production. Exploring the full potential of rain fed agriculture to meet the food, fodder and fuel requirement of the state population, is the only alternative, however, this will require investing in suitable soil and water conservation technologies,

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